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Questions

2 Umpire Umbrellas (UU) UU is a private limited company that sells umbrellas with pictures it prints on them. All of the pictures on the umbrellas are printed using batch production. The umbrellas can be used to shelter from the rain or as a shade from th

A Level BUSINESS 9609/22/M/J/18

1 Online Travel (OT) OT is a private limited company in country X that sells international holidays on the internet. All of OT’s current range of holidays are to sunny places with beaches. Customers can search and purchase the holidays through the OT webs

A Level BUSINESS 9609/22/M/J/18

7 (a) Analyse why many human resource departments have developed policies for diversity and equality. [8] (b) ‘A significant investment in training and development is the best way to improve employee effectiveness in a retail business.’ Discuss this view

A Level BUSINESS 9609/12/M/J/18

6 In recent years a significant number of businesses have been accused of being unethical. Discuss whether senior managers should consider ethics when making business decisions. [20]

A Level BUSINESS 9609/12/M/J/18

5 (a) Analyse why a train company might use a strategy of price discrimination. [8] (b) Discuss whether having a large product portfolio is an advantage for a car manufacturer. [12]

A Level BUSINESS 9609/12/M/J/18

4 (a) Define the term ‘capital expenditure’. [2] (b) Briefly explain two reasons why a bank might refuse to lend money to an entrepreneur. [3

A Level BUSINESS 9609/12/M/J/18

3 Explain the possible long-term consequences for a business of low levels of employee motivation

A Level BUSINESS 9609/12/M/J/18

2 (a) Define the term ‘below-the-line promotion’. [2] (b) Briefly describe two methods of ‘above-the-line promotion’. [3]

A Level BUSINESS 9609/12/M/J/18

1 (a) Define the term ‘inventory management’. [2] (b) Briefly explain two reasons why a business might decide to hold a high level of inventory. [3]

A Level BUSINESS 9609/12/M/J/18

7 Discuss how ADP should strategically manage and plan for crises in ways that minimise their long term impact on the business.

A Level BUSINESS 9609/32/O/N/17

6 Evaluate whether Prahalad and Hamel’s concept of Core Competencies and Porter’s Five Forces model are likely to be effective frameworks for ADP’s future business strategies. Refer to Appendix 2 in your answer.

A Level BUSINESS 9609/32/O/N/17

5 Evaluate whether the introduction of lean production techniques would be enough to improve ADP’s operational efficiency.

A Level BUSINESS 9609/32/O/N/17

4 (a) Refer to Table 3. Calculate for 2017: (i) labour productivity [3] (ii) wastage rate. [3] (b) Evaluate strategies for improving employee performance in ADP’s country Z factory without increasing unit labour costs. [14]

A Level BUSINESS 9609/32/O/N/17

3 ‘Long term sales forecasts will be the most important factor in our new marketing plan to break into the USA market.’ (Lines 58–59). Do you agree with this statement? Justify your answer

A Level BUSINESS 9609/32/O/N/17

2 (a) Refer to Table 1 and the information about Asif’s plan on lines 14–25. Calculate the forecast 2018 profit for the washing machine factory. [8] (b) Assess the usefulness of accounting ratio analysis to ADP’s senior management and one other stakeholde

A Level BUSINESS 9609/32/O/N/17

1 Analyse the limitations to ADP of using budgets and variance analysis when deciding the future of factory Q. Refer to Appendix 1 in your answer.

A Level BUSINESS 9609/32/O/N/17

2 Nearly New (NN) NN sells second-hand computers. NN is owned by Nathan who is a sole trader. Nathan is a fully trained and qualified computer engineer. Nathan buys broken computers from large electrical retailers and repairs them. The repaired computers

A Level BUSINESS 9609/22/O/N/17

1 Occasion Cards (OC) OC is a private limited company that sells greeting cards designed using mass customisation. Customers order their cards on the Internet and can add their own design and personal message to each card. OC allows customers to download

A Level BUSINESS 9609/22/O/N/17

7 (a) Analyse the importance of corporate objectives and departmental objectives to the success of a business. [8] (b) Discuss why a bank might change its corporate objectives over time. [12]

A Level BUSINESS 9609/12/O/N/17

6 A hospital requires employees to work long and often unsociable hours. Discuss why and how the hospital should assist its employees to achieve a good work-life balance. [20

A Level BUSINESS 9609/12/O/N/17

5 (a) Analyse how a business might use a price discrimination strategy to increase profit. [8] (b) Discuss why both the finance department and the operations department of a car manufacturing company should be involved in new product development.

A Level BUSINESS 9609/12/O/N/17

4 (a) Define the term ‘product orientation’. [2] (b) Briefly explain two advantages of customer (market) orientation to a business. [3]

A Level BUSINESS 9609/12/O/N/17

3 Explain the importance of workforce planning for the effective performance of a university. [5]

A Level BUSINESS 9609/12/O/N/17

2 (a) Define the term ‘retained earnings’. [2] (b) Briefly explain two uses of income statements for senior managers. [3]

A Level BUSINESS 9609/12/O/N/17

1 (a) Define the term ‘social enterprise’. [2] (b) Briefly explain two aims of a social enterprise.

A Level BUSINESS 9609/12/O/N/17

7 Evaluate the techniques that SA could use to make the strategic choice between the two options for growth.

A Level BUSINESS 9609/32/F/M/17

6 Discuss the importance of contingency planning if SA is to continue to be successful

A Level BUSINESS 9609/32/F/M/17

5 Evaluate the use of flexible employment contracts for SA’s future success. [14]

A Level BUSINESS 9609/32/F/M/17

4 (a) Refer to the information on lines 32–34 and 42–46. Assume the average capacity utilisation will be the same on the proposed international routes as on domestic flights. Calculate SA’s forecast average total revenue for one international flight. [6]

A Level BUSINESS 9609/32/F/M/17

3 To what extent could a detailed marketing plan lead to a successful launch of SA’s proposed new international routes?

A Level BUSINESS 9609/32/F/M/17

2 (a) (i) Refer to Appendix 2. Calculate the net present value (NPV) for the purchase of the two new aircraft. [4] (ii) Refer to Appendix 3. Calculate the new gearing ratio for SA if $80m is borrowed to purchase two new aircraft. [4] (b) Refer to your re

A Level BUSINESS 9609/32/F/M/17

1 Analyse the likely opportunities and threats to SA of the forecast economic changes given in Appendix 1.

A Level BUSINESS 9609/32/F/M/17

2 Clean and Tidy (CT) CT is an employee-owned business that specialises in cleaning homes. The homes are cleaned during the day whilst the homeowners are at work. There are nine employees, each of whom owns an equal share of the business. CT cleans 50–60

A Level BUSINESS 9609/22/F/M/17

1 Gourmet Ices (GI) GI is a partnership owned by Tom and Amy Smith. The business makes and sells highquality ice cream. At present the ice cream is only sold through businesses near to GI, but the owners would like to expand the business and sell ice crea

A Level BUSINESS 9609/22/F/M/17

7 (a) Analyse the importance of a Unique Selling Point (USP) to a mobile (cell) phone manufacturer. [8] (b) Discuss how a retail business could improve customer relations. [12]

A Level BUSINESS 9609/12/F/M/17

6 ‘Maslow’s theory of motivation can ensure success for all businesses.’ Discuss this statement

A Level BUSINESS 9609/12/F/M/17

5 (a) Analyse the strengths and weaknesses of a ‘public limited company’ legal structure for business. [8] (b) Discuss how ethics may influence the decisions of private sector banks. [12]

A Level BUSINESS 9609/12/F/M/17

4 (a) Define the term ‘economies of scale’. [2] (b) Briefly explain two causes of diseconomies of scale. [3]

A Level BUSINESS 9609/12/F/M/17

3 Explain why a mission statement might be important for a multinational business. [5

A Level BUSINESS 9609/12/F/M/17

2 (a) Define the term ‘working capital’. [2] (b) Briefly explain the difference between revenue expenditure and capital expenditure. [3]

A Level BUSINESS 9609/12/F/M/17

1 (a) Define the term ‘market research’. [2] (b) Briefly explain the limitations to a business of using secondary market research information. [3]

A Level BUSINESS 9609/12/F/M/17

7 Evaluate the importance of developing a culture of change within HH when introducing new growth strategies

A Level BUSINESS 9609/32/M/J/17

6 Refer to Table 2 and other information. Evaluate the most important factors HH’s directors should consider when making the strategic choice between option 1 and option 2. [20]

A Level BUSINESS 9609/32/M/J/17

5 Discuss a suitable marketing strategy for HH if it decides to open hotels in country P. [16]

A Level BUSINESS 9609/32/M/J/17

4 (a) Refer to lines 49–57 and Table 1. Calculate: (i) gearing ratio assuming all $60m is obtained from long term loans [3] (ii) dividend per share in 2018 assuming all $60m is obtained by the sale of an additional 20m shares. [3] (b) Refer to your resu

A Level BUSINESS 9609/32/M/J/17

3 Discuss the changes HH should make to its organisational structure to allow for future business growth.

A Level BUSINESS 9609/32/M/J/17

2 (a) Refer to the Appendix. Calculate for location Y: (i) break-even number of customers per month [3] (ii) monthly profit at maximum capacity [3] (iii) margin of safety. [2] (b) Refer to your results from 2(a), the Appendix and other information. Rec

A Level BUSINESS 9609/32/M/J/17

1 Analyse the likely impact of globalisation on HH. [10]

A Level BUSINESS 9609/32/M/J/17

2 Quality Leather (QL) QL is a worker co-operative. It is equally owned by ten owner-workers and was set up five years ago. QL produces bags, cases and wallets made from leather material. The goods are produced in a small factory using batch production me

A Level BUSINESS 9609/22/M/J/17

1 Perfect Pizza (PP) Paul is a chef. He is looking to set up a new pizza restaurant in his local town in country A. He has done some research into the pizza market in this country

A Level BUSINESS 9609/22/M/J/17

7 (a) Analyse how any one stakeholder group could use both an income statement and a statement of financial position. [8] (b) Discuss the view that the quantitative information in published accounts does not present a complete picture of business performa

A Level BUSINESS 9609/12/M/J/17

6 ‘Money is the most important factor for motivating teachers in a school.’ Discuss this view. [20]

A Level BUSINESS 9609/12/M/J/17

5 (a) Analyse problems a business could experience in its first year of trading. [8] (b) Discuss whether market research will reduce problems that might be experienced by a new start-up business. [12]

A Level BUSINESS 9609/12/M/J/17

4 (a) Define the term ‘demand’. [2] (b) Briefly explain two factors that could influence the demand for restaurant meals. [3]

A Level BUSINESS 9609/12/M/J/17

3 Explain the possible benefits of mass customisation to a computer manufacturer. [5]

A Level BUSINESS 9609/12/M/J/17

2 (a) Define the term ‘debt factoring’. [2] (b) Briefly explain how leasing might be used by a business to improve cash flow. [3]

A Level BUSINESS 9609/12/M/J/17

1 (a) Define the term ‘leadership’. [2] (b) Briefly explain two styles of leadership. [3]

A Level BUSINESS 9609/12/M/J/17

7 Evaluate the importance of strategic management to the future success of MFI. [20]

A Level BUSINESS 9609/32/O/N/16

6 Discuss how MFI’s directors should manage the food poisoning crisis. [20]

A Level BUSINESS 9609/32/O/N/16

5 Recommend to Marco which one of the two applicants should be selected to be the new Operations manager. Justify your answer with reference to Appendix 1 and other relevant information. [14]

A Level BUSINESS 9609/32/O/N/16

4 (a) Refer to Appendix 2 and the Board’s market share objective on lines 55–56. Calculate: (i) forecast value of MFI’s sales in country Y in 2017 [3] (ii) price elasticity of demand of the best-selling premium brand of processed fish. [5] (b) Discuss

A Level BUSINESS 9609/32/O/N/16

3 Discuss the likely impact on MFI of the changes to the external legal and economic environment in country X.

A Level BUSINESS 9609/32/O/N/16

2 (a) Refer to lines 69–72. Calculate for the purchase of the 10 fishing boats: (i) annual net cash flows [3] (ii) payback period [2] (iii) net present value at a discount rate of 10%. [3] (b) Recommend to Marco whether the new fishing boats should be

A Level BUSINESS 9609/32/O/N/16

1 Analyse the benefits to MFI of Marco’s effective delegation. [10]

A Level BUSINESS 9609/32/O/N/16

2 Fire Fly Ebooks (FFE) FFE is a manufacturer of electronic book readers (e-readers). The product is used to read electronic books which are sold by other businesses. FFE’s product is a simple and inexpensive e-reader with a retail price of between $20 an

A Level BUSINESS 9609/22/O/N/16

1 Pampered Pets (PP) PP is a chain of shops that sells pet food and accessories. Most of the shops are franchises. This has allowed PP to grow rapidly over the past three years.

A Level BUSINESS 9609/22/O/N/16

7 (a) Analyse the advantages and disadvantages to an employer of using performance related pay. [8] (b) Discuss the importance for a large hotel of staff development and training. [12]

A Level BUSINESS 9609/12/O/N/16

6 Discuss ways in which the operations management department of a car manufacturing company could help the business survive during an economic recession. [20]

A Level BUSINESS 9609/12/O/N/16

5 (a) Analyse, using examples, why packaging could be important in the marketing mix. [8] (b) Discuss factors that could determine the success of a business that has decided to set up an online shop to sell beauty products. [12]

A Level BUSINESS 9609/12/O/N/16

4 (a) Define ‘secondary market research’. [2] (b) Briefly explain two advantages of using ‘focus groups’ as a method of market research. [3]

A Level BUSINESS 9609/12/O/N/16

3 Explain why cost information is important for business decision-making. [5]

A Level BUSINESS 9609/12/O/N/16

2 (a) Define ‘leadership’. [2] (b) Briefly explain two advantages of autocratic leadership. [3]

A Level BUSINESS 9609/12/O/N/16

1 (a) Define ‘joint venture’. [2] (b) Briefly explain two advantages of joint ventures to the businesses involved. [3]

A Level BUSINESS 9609/12/O/N/16

7 Assume strategy B is chosen. Discuss how BS might implement the strategic changes required.

A Level BUSINESS 9609/32/F/M/16

6 Evaluate the usefulness to BS of the methods of strategic choice in Appendix 3. [20]

A Level BUSINESS 9609/32/F/M/16

5 Recommend to Sarah which one of the two existing factory managers she should appoint to manage the newly expanded factory in country F. Justify your answer. [16]

A Level BUSINESS 9609/32/F/M/16

4 (a) Refer to Appendix 1. Calculate for the purchase option: (i) payback period [2] (ii) net present value at a discount rate of 10%. [4] (b) Recommend to BS whether to lease or purchase the machinery. Use your results from (a) and other information t

A Level BUSINESS 9609/32/F/M/16

3 Evaluate a marketing strategy that BS could use to achieve a market share of 10% in country P. [16]

A Level BUSINESS 9609/32/F/M/16

2 (a) Refer to Appendix 2. Calculate for 2015: (i) dividend yield [4] (ii) price earnings ratio. [4] (b) Discuss whether the Board should increase dividends to shareholders. Use your results from (a) and other information to justify your answer. [12]

A Level BUSINESS 9609/32/F/M/16

1 Analyse the likely benefits to BS of moving all of its production to one factory (lines 29–31). [10]

A Level BUSINESS 9609/32/F/M/16

2 Fruit Fusions (FF) FF is a manufacturer of fruit juice drinks with natural ingredients. The drinks are made in an industrial kitchen using batch production. FF buys large quantities of fruit directly from farms in the local area

A Level BUSINESS 9609/22/F/M/16

1 Lovell’s Jewellery (LJ) Sara Lovell is a jewellery maker who designs, produces and sells her own range of jewellery. Sara is a sole trader and she set up LJ two years ago after she left university. The start up capital for LJ was mainly borrowed from Sa

A Level BUSINESS 9609/22/F/M/16

7 (a) Analyse why it is important for businesses to effectively manage their levels of cash. [8] (b) Discuss how liquidity ratios could be useful for external stakeholders of a business. [12]

A Level BUSINESS 9609/12/F/M/16

6 Discuss how and why a multinational food manufacturer might have corporate social responsibility (CSR) as a business objective. [20]

A Level BUSINESS 9609/12/F/M/16

5 (a) Analyse the importance of employee motivation for the achievement of business objectives. [8] (b) Discuss the view that managers and leaders perform very different functions in business organisations. [12]

A Level BUSINESS 9609/12/F/M/16

4 (a) Define ‘product differentiation’. [2] (b) Briefly explain two marketing benefits of product differentiation. [3]

A Level BUSINESS 9609/12/F/M/16

3 Explain why accurate cost data is important to a business. [5]

A Level BUSINESS 9609/12/F/M/16

2 (a) Define ‘productivity’. [2] (b) Briefly explain two ways of improving manufacturing productivity in a business. [3]

A Level BUSINESS 9609/12/F/M/16

1 (a) Distinguish between the ‘private sector’ and the ‘public sector’. [2] (b) Briefly explain two advantages of public sector businesses. [3]

A Level BUSINESS 9609/12/F/M/16

7 Assume CJE’s directors choose strategy 2. Evaluate how this strategy might be implemented successfully. [20]

A Level BUSINESS 9609/32/M/J/16

6 Recommend to CJE’s Board of Directors which one of the two strategic options the company should choose. Justify your recommendation. [20]

A Level BUSINESS 9609/32/M/J/16

5 Assess the usefulness of the forecasts in Appendix 1 to any two functional departments of CJE. [16]

A Level BUSINESS 9609/32/M/J/16

4 (a) Refer to Table 2 and the information on lines 64–68. Assume the changes suggested by the Finance Director are made. Calculate: (i) operating profit margin at the end of October 2016 [4] (ii) gearing ratio at the end of October 2016. [4] (b) Advis

A Level BUSINESS 9609/32/M/J/16

3 Discuss the implications for CJE of making ‘facilitating payments’ to Government officials. [16]

A Level BUSINESS 9609/32/M/J/16

2 (a) Refer to Table 1. Calculate the difference in unit cost between the two supply options for turbine blades. [6] (b) Recommend whether CJE should outsource turbine blade production. Justify your answer using your answer from (a) and other information

A Level BUSINESS 9609/32/M/J/16

1 Analyse the impact on CJE of adopting a more flexible approach to human resource management. [10]

A Level BUSINESS 9609/32/M/J/16

2 Mackintosh Shoes (MS) MS is a private limited company that manufactures shoes. It uses labour intensive production methods in its two factories. MS is a family owned and operated company. MS has been trading for twenty years. It has grown significantly

A Level BUSINESS 9609/22/M/J/16

1 Scented Candles (SC) SC has been trading for one year. SC is a sole trader business owned by Jane. SC produces and sells a range of luxury scented candles. The business is operated from a shop in a town where there are several competitors. However, empl

A Level BUSINESS 9609/22/M/J/16

7 (a) Analyse the importance to a large business of setting corporate objectives. [8] (b) Discuss how a large food retailer, with many shops, could effectively communicate corporate objectives to its workforce. [12]

A Level BUSINESS 9609/12/M/J/16

6 ‘The 4Cs marketing model is more useful for a retail business than the 4Ps marketing model.’ Do you agree with this statement? Justify your view. [20]

A Level BUSINESS 9609/12/M/J/16

5 (a) Analyse the importance for a business of distinguishing between revenue expenditure and capital expenditure. [8] (b) Discuss the benefits and drawbacks to a business of using only internal sources of finance to fund expansion. [12]

A Level BUSINESS 9609/12/M/J/16

4 (a) Distinguish between a ‘job description’ and a ‘person specification’. [2] (b) Briefly explain two ways in which employees can participate in business decision making. [3]

A Level BUSINESS 9609/12/M/J/16

3 Explain the costs and benefits to a business of a decision to hold low levels of inventory. [5]

A Level BUSINESS 9609/12/M/J/16

2 (a) Distinguish between random sampling and quota sampling. [2] (b) Briefly explain two limitations of market research sampling. [3]

A Level BUSINESS 9609/12/M/J/16

1 (a) Define the term ‘entrepreneur’. [2] (b) Briefly explain two reasons why new businesses often fail. [3]

A Level BUSINESS 9609/12/M/J/16

7 Discuss the importance of FE’s Directors developing a detailed corporate plan before implementing strategies for future growth.

A Level BUSINESS 9609/32/F/M/20

6 Evaluate the usefulness of decision tree analysis to FE’s Directors when making the strategic choice between options A and B.

A Level BUSINESS 9609/32/F/M/20

5 Evaluate the significance of workforce planning to FE’s future success

A Level BUSINESS 9609/32/F/M/20

4 (a) Refer to Tables 2 and 3. Calculate for 2019: (i) inventory turnover (ii) gearing(iii) current ratio(b) Evaluate the usefulness of ratio analysis to FE’s managers when making decisions

A Level BUSINESS 9609/32/F/M/20

3 Evaluate changes to the marketing strategy of FE needed to increase its market share of the household market for wind turbines.

A Level BUSINESS 9609/32/F/M/20

2 (a) Refer to lines 29–31. Calculate the forecast capacity utilisation for 2020 in FE’s factory. (b) Refer to Table 1. Calculate the difference in unit cost of towers produced by expanding the factory or outsourcing.(c) Refer to your results from 2(a) an

A Level BUSINESS 9609/32/F/M/20

Analyse the likely impact of changes in interest rates on FE

A Level BUSINESS 9609/32/F/M/20

Joe graduated with a Business degree. He then spent a year travelling around Asia. He discovered a local drink. This was a fruit smoothie, with added nuts and seeds for protein, that many people drank instead of a meal. When he returned home to country Y

A Level BUSINESS 9609/22/F/M/20

Bob is a carpenter who uses job production to make furniture using premium materials. Each item of furniture is priced using cost-based pricing with a 50% mark-up. He is a sole trader. Due to poor economic activity in country X, Bob has fewer customers fo

A Level BUSINESS 9609/22/F/M/20

7 (a) Analyse the benefits to a business of motivating its employees. [8] (b) Discuss whether a salary is the best payment method for motivating employees of a shoe retailer. [12]

A Level BUSINESS 9609/12/F/M/20

6 ‘Using the Internet for marketing is essential to the success of a smartphone retailer.’ Do you agree with this statement? Justify your view. [20]

A Level BUSINESS 9609/12/F/M/20

5 (a) Analyse the advantages of using different methods to measure the size of a business. [8] (b) Discuss whether a partnership is the best legal structure for an accountancy business. [12]

A Level BUSINESS 9609/12/F/M/20

4 (a) Define the term ‘external economies of scale’. [2] (b) Explain two internal economies of scale. [3]

A Level BUSINESS 9609/12/F/M/20

3 Explain how better management of trade receivables and trade payables can improve cash flow. [5]

A Level BUSINESS 9609/12/F/M/20

2 (a) Define the term ‘diversity’ in a workforce. [2] (b) Explain two benefits to a business of employing a diverse workforce. [3]

A Level BUSINESS 9609/12/F/M/20

1 (a) Define the term ‘Product Life Cycle’. [2] (b) Explain two ways a business could extend a product’s life cycle. [3]

A Level BUSINESS 9609/12/F/M/20

7 Recommend which one of the two strategic options AEV should choose. Justify your recommendation. Your answer must include an evaluation of strategic choice techniques.

A Level BUSINESS 9609/32/O/N/19

6 Evaluate the importance of business planning to AEV’s future profitability.

A Level BUSINESS 9609/32/O/N/19

5 Discuss the significance of product development to AEV’s future success.

A Level BUSINESS 9609/32/O/N/19

4 (a) Refer to Table 1. Calculate the difference in labour turnover between 2017 and 2018. (b) Discuss the importance of human resource management to the success of the planned expansion of the CellX manufacturing centre

A Level BUSINESS 9609/32/O/N/19

3 ‘AEV is unable to meet this demand due to a lack of capacity and supply constraints’ (Lines 47–48). Other than expansion of CellX, discuss ways in which the Operations Management Department of AEV could solve this problem.

A Level BUSINESS 9609/32/O/N/19

2 (a) Refer to Appendix 1. Calculate for 2019: (i) the dividend yield (ii) the price earnings ratio (iii) the return on capital employed (ROCE). (b) Refer to 2(a) and any other information. Recommend whether potential investors should purchase shares in

A Level BUSINESS 9609/32/O/N/19

1 Analyse the likely impact on AEV’s profit of intervention by governments in the car market.

A Level BUSINESS 9609/32/O/N/19

CP is a public limited company which sells candy (sweets) to its national market and international markets. CP has benefitted from internal growth over the past eight years and has a good working capital position.

A Level BUSINESS 9609/22/O/N/19

QF is owned by Seojun. Seojun is a sole trader who repairs and builds wooden fences. Most of his customers own houses with gardens in city X. Seojun is an entrepreneur who has an aim to be rich. He set up QF two years ago to fulfil his aim and he set hims

A Level BUSINESS 9609/22/O/N/19

7 (a) Analyse how break-even analysis might be used by a business when making a decision to introduce a new product. [8] (b) Discuss the usefulness of accounting ratios for assessing the performance of a large food retailing business. [12]

A Level BUSINESS 9609/12/O/N/19

6 A loss-making state-owned airline has a reputation for poor customer service. Its Human Resource Director suggested that: ‘the best way to improve this business is to pay our employees higher wages and give them an end of year bonus’. Discuss this sugge

A Level BUSINESS 9609/12/O/N/19

5 (a) Analyse the advantages to an entrepreneur of purchasing a franchise to start a business. [8] (b) Discuss factors that could lead to the failure of a small business which repairs cars. [12]

A Level BUSINESS 9609/12/O/N/19

4 (a) Define the term ‘diseconomies of scale’. [2] (b) Briefly explain two functions of an operations management department. [3]

A Level BUSINESS 9609/12/O/N/19

3 Explain why the objectives of a business may change over time. [5]

A Level BUSINESS 9609/12/O/N/19

2 (a) Define the term ‘workforce planning’. [2] (b) Briefly explain two benefits to a business of workforce planning. [3]

A Level BUSINESS 9609/12/O/N/19

1 (a) Define the term ‘random sampling’. [2] (b) Briefly explain two benefits to a business of using quota sampling as a method of collecting data. [3]

A Level BUSINESS 9609/12/O/N/19

7 Evaluate the importance of business planning to the future success of PY.

A Level BUSINESS 9609/32/F/M/19

6 Yoon has produced a strategic analysis of PY’s potential entry into the North American market. Evaluate the usefulness of this strategic analysis to PY’s Directors when they consider the plan to expand into North America

A Level BUSINESS 9609/32/F/M/19

5 Assess the significance of corporate social responsibility (CSR) to PY’s future profitability.

A Level BUSINESS 9609/32/F/M/19

4 (a) Refer to Appendix 1. Calculate: (i) seasonal variation in 2018 Quarter 1 (ii) average seasonal variation in Quarter 2 (c) Refer to your result from 4(b) and any other information. Discuss the usefulness of sales forecasting to PY when making market

A Level BUSINESS 9609/32/F/M/19

3 Recommend whether PY should close the three cafés in the North East of country S. Justify your answer with reference to Table 1 and other information.

A Level BUSINESS 9609/32/F/M/19

2 (a) Refer to the network diagram in Fig. 1 and to Table 2 in the Insert (i) Complete the network diagram at nodes 3 and 4. [4] (ii) State the activities on the critical path. (iii) State the minimum time to complete the opening of the new café. (iv) Ca

A Level BUSINESS 9609/32/F/M/19

1 Analyse the benefits to PY of maintaining a centralised organisational structure.

A Level BUSINESS 9609/32/F/M/19

SSR is a small social enterprise located in a low-income inner city area. SSR employs young people who have not been successful at school. It aims to teach them valuable work skills and to help them gain qualifications, so that they have more chance of ge

A Level BUSINESS 9609/22/F/M/19

JF is a private limited company which owns a farm. It produces crops including maize and sunflower seeds. The crops are sold to manufacturers that produce cooking oils for supermarkets. Jim is worried as the price JF receives for its crops is falling. JF

A Level BUSINESS 9609/22/F/M/19

JF is a private limited company which owns a farm. It produces crops including maize and sunflower seeds. The crops are sold to manufacturers that produce cooking oils for supermarkets. Jim is worried as the price JF receives for its crops is falling. JF

A Level BUSINESS 9609/22/F/M/19

7 (a) Analyse the benefits for a new business of producing a cash flow forecast. [8] (b) Discuss how a large food retailer might best improve its profitability ratios. [12]

A Level BUSINESS 9609/12/F/M/19

6 ‘An effective manager must perform all of Mintzberg’s roles of management.’ Do you agree with this statement? Justify your view. [20]

A Level BUSINESS 9609/12/F/M/19

5 (a) Analyse the likely benefits to a car manufacturing company of using capital intensive processes. [8] (b) Discuss whether batch production is the best method of production for a small jewellery manufacturing business. [12]

A Level BUSINESS 9609/12/F/M/19

4 (a) Define the term ‘statement of financial position’. [2] (b) Briefly explain two uses an investor might make of a statement of financial position. [3]

A Level BUSINESS 9609/12/F/M/19

3 Explain why there might be conflict between two stakeholder groups of a large mining company. [5]

A Level BUSINESS 9609/12/F/M/19

2 (a) Define the term ‘demand’. [2] (b) Briefly explain two factors which might influence demand for digital cameras. [3]

A Level BUSINESS 9609/12/F/M/19

1 (a) Define the term ‘Just in Time’ (JIT). [2] (b) Briefly explain two benefits for a manufacturing business of using Just in Time (JIT). [3]

A Level BUSINESS 9609/12/F/M/19

7 Evaluate the importance of business planning to the future success of PY

A Level BUSINESS 9609/32/F/M/19

6 Yoon has produced a strategic analysis of PY’s potential entry into the North American market. Evaluate the usefulness of this strategic analysis to PY’s Directors when they consider the plan to expand into North America.

A Level BUSINESS 9609/32/F/M/19

5 Assess the significance of corporate social responsibility (CSR) to PY’s future profitability.

A Level BUSINESS 9609/32/F/M/19

4 (a) Refer to Appendix 1. Calculate: (i) seasonal variation in 2018 Quarter 1 .[1] (ii) average seasonal variation in Quarter 2. [2] (b) Refer to Appendix 1 and Appendix 2. Calculate PY’s forecast sales for Quarter 3 in 2019.

A Level BUSINESS 9609/32/F/M/19

3 Recommend whether PY should close the three cafés in the North East of country S. Justify your answer with reference to Table 1 and other information.

A Level BUSINESS 9609/32/F/M/19

2 (a) Refer to the network diagram in Fig. 1 and to Table 2 in the Insert. 4 2 5 3 6 1 A B 1 2 F 3 C 4 D 1 E 2 G 1 K 1 H 2 J 2 7 8 0 0 2 2 5 7 6 6 8 8 9 9 Fig. 1: Network diagram for opening new café (i) Complete the network diagram at nodes 3 and 4. [4]

A Level BUSINESS 9609/32/F/M/19

1 Analyse the benefits to PY of maintaining a centralised organisational structure

A Level BUSINESS 9609/32/F/M/19

2 Sadiq’s Social Restaurant (SSR) SSR is a small social enterprise located in a low-income inner city area. SSR employs young people who have not been successful at school. It aims to teach them valuable work skills and to help them g

A Level BUSINESS 9609/22/F/M/19

1 Jim’s Farm (JF) JF is a private limited company which owns a farm. It produces crops including maize and sunflower seeds. The crops are sold to manufacturers that produce cooking oils for supermarkets. Jim is worried as the price JF receives for its cr

A Level BUSINESS 9609/22/F/M/19

7 (a) Analyse the benefits for a new business of producing a cash flow forecast. [8] (b) Discuss how a large food retailer might best improve its profitability ratios.

A Level BUSINESS 9609/12/F/M/19

6 ‘An effective manager must perform all of Mintzberg’s roles of management.’ Do you agree with this statement? Justify your view

A Level BUSINESS 9609/12/F/M/19

5 (a) Analyse the likely benefits to a car manufacturing company of using capital intensive processes. [8] (b) Discuss whether batch production is the best method of production for a small jewellery manufacturing business.

A Level BUSINESS 9609/12/F/M/19

4 (a) Define the term ‘statement of financial position’. [2] (b) Briefly explain two uses an investor might make of a statement of financial position.

A Level BUSINESS 9609/12/F/M/19

3 Explain why there might be conflict between two stakeholder groups of a large mining company

A Level BUSINESS 9609/12/F/M/19

2 (a) Define the term ‘demand’. [2] (b) Briefly explain two factors which might influence demand for digital cameras.

A Level BUSINESS 9609/12/F/M/19

1 (a) Define the term ‘Just in Time’ (JIT). [2] (b) Briefly explain two benefits for a manufacturing business of using Just in Time (JIT)

A Level BUSINESS 9609/12/F/M/19

7 Discuss whether DLR’s use of strategic choice techniques can eliminate risk when taking strategic decisions.

A Level BUSINESS 9609/32/O/N/18

6 Discuss the importance to DLR’s future profitability of business planning.

A Level BUSINESS 9609/32/O/N/18

5 Assess the extent to which any two of the forecast changes in Table 3 could influence DLR’s future decision-making.

A Level BUSINESS 9609/32/O/N/18

4 (a) Refer to Table 1. Calculate for 2018: (i) capacity utilisation(ii) the number of apartments that must be occupied each day for DLR to break even.(b) Discuss the importance to DLR of increasing capacity utilisation.

A Level BUSINESS 9609/32/O/N/18

3 Recommend changes the Human Resources Director could make to DLR’s human resource strategy. Justify your recommendation.

A Level BUSINESS 9609/32/O/N/18

2 (a) Refer to Appendix A and lines 74–79. Produce a forecast Income Statement for the year ending 30 September 2019. Assume no other changes.(b) Using your result to 2(a) calculate the forecast gross profit margin for 2019.(c) Discuss the usefulness of f

A Level BUSINESS 9609/32/O/N/18

1 Analyse the benefits to DLR of the elasticity concept when developing the new marketing plan.

A Level BUSINESS 9609/32/O/N/18

2 Wet Water (WW) WW is a new business set up by Puja. WW will operate in the primary sector. It will take water from a local lake and process it into drinking water. The details of the product and market are outlined in Fig. 2.

A Level BUSINESS 9609/22/O/N/18

1 Clothing Line (CL) Thamir is an entrepreneur who built up an international retail business. He is now a multi-millionaire who provides venture capital. Thamir is currently deciding whether to purch

A Level BUSINESS 9609/22/O/N/18

7 (a) Analyse how the efficiency of the operations of a manufacturing business could be influenced by its human resources department. [8] (b) Discuss how the actions of competitors could affect the operational management decisions of a car manufacturer.

A Level BUSINESS 9609/12/O/N/18

6 Discuss the extent to which the stakeholders of a large clothing retailer might want the business to become more ethical and socially responsible.

A Level BUSINESS 9609/12/O/N/18

5 (a) Analyse how the 4Cs marketing approach is different to the 4Ps marketing approach. [8] (b) Discuss how a house construction business could improve its customer relations.

A Level BUSINESS 9609/12/O/N/18

4 (a) Define the term ‘value added’. [2] (b) Briefly explain two ways a restaurant could increase its value added.

A Level BUSINESS 9609/12/O/N/18

3 Explain how a large manufacturing business could finance investment in new machinery

A Level BUSINESS 9609/12/O/N/18

2 (a) Define the term ‘empowerment’. [2] (b) Briefly explain two reasons why a business might decide to empower its employees.

A Level BUSINESS 9609/12/O/N/18

1 (a) Define the term ‘unique selling point’ (USP). [2] (b) Briefly explain two benefits to a business of having a USP

A Level BUSINESS 9609/12/O/N/18

7 Assume that AP’s directors choose option A. Evaluate how this strategy may be successfully implemented.

A Level BUSINESS 9609/32/F/M/18

6 Evaluate the usefulness of strategic choice techniques to AP’s directors to help them decide between the two options for growth.

A Level BUSINESS 9609/32/F/M/18

Discuss the importance of human resource management to the success of the new African factory.

A Level BUSINESS 9609/32/F/M/18

4 (a) Refer to Table 3 below (reproduced from the insert) and the network diagram on the opposite page. Table 3: Estimated times for activities for building and equipping the new factory Activity Duration (weeks) Preceding activities A Plan new building a

A Level BUSINESS 9609/32/F/M/18

3 To what extent might AP’s focus on corporate social responsibility be the most important factor for the success of the proposed new marketing strategy for international markets?

A Level BUSINESS 9609/32/F/M/18

2 (a) Refer to lines 34–41 and Table 2. Calculate the forecast change in the dividend yield from 2017 to 2018.(b) Refer to your answer to part (a) and other information from the case. Recommend to AP’s shareholders whether they should sell their shares in

A Level BUSINESS 9609/32/F/M/18

1 ‘The Government of country X has decided to end international trading agreements with neighbouring countries.’ (Lines 15–16) Analyse the likely impact on AP of this decision

A Level BUSINESS 9609/32/F/M/18

2 Luxury Carpets (LC) LC is a large public limited company operating in country B. LC produces and sells a range of luxury carpets and other floor coverings. The carpets are sold to households through the many shops that LC has in country B. LC also sell

A Level BUSINESS 9609/22/F/M/18

1 Paul’s Clothes (PC) PC is a sole trader business that is owned and managed by Paul. Paul financed the business using a mortgage on his home. PC has two retail clothes shops in neighbouring towns in country A. Both shops sell a range of suits, shirts, t

A Level BUSINESS 9609/22/F/M/18

7 (a) Analyse how a business might use break-even analysis when planning to launch a new product. [8] (b) Discuss the factors that directors of a large pharmaceutical company should consider when choosing how to finance growth.

A Level BUSINESS 9609/12/F/M/18

6 ‘A family retail business should stay small rather than setting growth as an objective.’ Do you agree? Justify your answer.

A Level BUSINESS 9609/12/F/M/18

5 (a) Analyse the benefits of a job description and a person specification when recruiting a new employee. [8] (b) Discuss which leadership style is likely to be the most effective for a large clothing manufacturer.

A Level BUSINESS 9609/12/F/M/18

4 (a) Define the term ‘labour turnover’. [2] (b) Briefly explain two possible causes of high labour turnover in a business.

A Level BUSINESS 9609/12/F/M/18

3 Explain why mass customisation might be used by businesses

A Level BUSINESS 9609/12/F/M/18

2 (a) Define the term ‘entrepreneur’. [2] (b) Briefly explain two qualities of a successful entrepreneur.

A Level BUSINESS 9609/12/F/M/18

1 (a) Define the term ‘random sampling’. [2] (b) Briefly explain two benefits of using quota sampling when carrying out market research.

A Level BUSINESS 9609/12/F/M/18

7 Evaluate the extent to which contingency planning might help DA achieve its long-term aims and objectives.

A Level BUSINESS 9609/32/M/J/18

6 Discuss whether strategic choice techniques can eliminate risk from the strategic decisions that the directors of DA have to make.

A Level BUSINESS 9609/32/M/J/18

5 Assume DA decides to go ahead with strategy 1. Discuss the extent to which the data in Appendix 5 and other external factors could influence DA’s success in country B

A Level BUSINESS 9609/32/M/J/18

4 (a) Refer to Appendix 2. Calculate: (i) promotional elasticity of demand for the DA range of walking boots if spending on promotion is increased from $200000 to $300000(ii) price elasticity of demand for the DA Explorer boot if price is reduced from $2

A Level BUSINESS 9609/32/M/J/18

3 Discuss the extent to which the adoption of lean production techniques will solve DA’s current operational problems.

A Level BUSINESS 9609/32/M/J/18

2 (a) Refer to Appendix 1. Calculate as at 20 April 2018: (i) dividend yield (ii) price earnings ratio(b) Using your results to 2(a) and any other relevant information, recommend whether potential investors should buy shares in DA. Justify your recommend

A Level BUSINESS 9609/32/M/J/18

1 Analyse the likely positive and negative impact on DA of having a decentralised organisational structure.

A Level BUSINESS 9609/32/M/J/18

A business paid $10 000 for motor expenses in the year.

A Level ACCOUNTING 9706/12/O/N/15

A trader sends his staff on a training course costing $100 per person. 10 staff attended in April and 4 in May. Half the total cost had to be paid at the start of April and the balance at the end of May.

A Level ACCOUNTING 9706/12/O/N/15

Why does a trader account for accrued income?

A Level ACCOUNTING 9706/12/O/N/15

A student carried out a series of experiments to determine the enthalpy change of combustion of ethanol, C2H5OH. A diagram of the apparatus is shown below. The ethanol in the spirit burner was burned to heat a measured mass of water in the metal can.

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/52/F/M/16

Propanone, CH3COCH3, is an organic liquid which is soluble in water. Aqueous propanone reacts with aqueous iodine. The reaction is catalysed by H+(aq) ions. CH3COCH3(aq) + I2(aq) → CH3COCH2I(aq) + HI(aq) The order of reaction with respect to iod

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/52/F/M/16

(a) (i) Name an example of a synthetic polyester and a synthetic polyamide. (ii) Polyesters and polyamides are formed by condensation reactions. Name a molecule which is commonly eliminated in such reactions. (b) (i) The table shows the repeat units

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/42/F/M/16

Acebutolol is a drug that can be used to lower blood pressure. (a) Give the full name of the circled functional groups labelled P, Q and R in acebutolol. (b) On the diagram of acebutolol below, draw a circle around any chiral carbon atoms. (c) On war

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/42/F/M/16

(a) (i) State and explain the relative acidities of ethanol and phenol. (ii) In the table below, give the reaction conditions for the formation of organic products D and E and draw their structures. (iii) Name the mechanism of the reaction forming com

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/42/F/M/16

Two elements, V and W, are in adjacent groups in the Periodic Table. V reacts with oxygen to form an acidic gas, X. V forms an anion with formula VOm–. W reacts with oxygen to form an acidic gas, Y. W forms an anion with formula WOn2–. A solution of W

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/42/F/M/16

Some reactions of chromium ions are shown below. (a) (i) Use the Data Booklet to suggest a suitable metal to carry out reaction 1. (ii) Use E o values to explain your answer to (i) by calculating the . (b) A student suggested that reaction 2 could be

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/42/F/M/16

(a) Ethanal, CH3CHO, dimerises in alkaline solution according to the following equation. 2CH3CHO → CH3CH(OH)CH2CHO The initial rate of this reaction was measured, starting with different concentrations of CH3CHO and OH–. The following results were obt

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/42/F/M/16

(a) Complete the electronic structures of the following species. (b) In an isolated transition metal atom the five d orbitals have the same energy. When a transition metal ion forms a tetrahedral complex the d orbitals are split into two groups of diffe

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/42/F/M/16

(a) Calcium metal reacts with chlorine gas to form calcium chloride, CaCl 2. (i) Write an equation, including state symbols, to represent the lattice energy of calcium chloride, CaCl 2. (ii) Complete a fully labelled Born-Haber cycle that could be us

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/42/F/M/16

(a) Complete the diagrams to show the energies of the electrons in a carbon atom, a C+ ion and a C– ion. (b) One of the simple molecular allotropes of carbon is buckminsterfullerene, C60. (i) What is the hybridisation of the carbon atoms in C60? (ii)

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/42/F/M/16

Some reactions of compound P, C5H8O, are shown. (a) (i) Give the structures for organic compounds Q, R, S and T. (ii) Give the systematic name of compound P. (iii) What would you observe when compound P is reacted with 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine (2,4-

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/22/F/M/16

The following compounds were all found to be components of a sample of petrol. (a) (i) Give the molecular formula of compound G. (ii) Give the empirical formula of compound H. (iii) Draw the skeletal formula of compound J. (b) Write an equation to

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/22/F/M/16

Over one million tonnes of hydrogen cyanide, HCN, are produced each year using the Andrussow process. The overall equation for the reaction is shown. CH4(g) + NH3(g) + 1 1/2 O2(g) HCN(g) + 3H2O(g) (a) (i) Draw a dot-and-cross diagram to repres

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/22/F/M/16

Spathose is an iron ore that contains iron(II) carbonate, FeCO3. The percentage of iron(II) carbonate in spathose can be determined by titration with acidified potassium dichromate(VI) solution using a suitable indicator. The ionic equation is shown be

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/22/F/M/16

This question is about Period 3 elements and their compounds. (a) Give an explanation for each of the following statements. (i) The atomic radius decreases across Period 3 (Na to Ar). (ii) The first ionisation energy of sulfur is lower than that of

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/22/F/M/16

The relative molecular mass, Mr, of volatile liquids can be determined using the apparatus below. A known mass of volatile liquid is injected into the gas syringe using a hypodermic syringe. The injected volatile liquid vaporises and the volume of vapour

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/42/M/J/16

A more reactive metal will displace a less reactive metal from a solution of its salt. This reaction is exothermic. If the same reaction is set up in an electrochemical cell then, instead of an enthalpy change, electrical energy is produced and a cell vo

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/42/M/J/16

(a) (i) Complete the electronic configuration of the iron atom. (ii) In some of its complexes, the Fe^3+ ion has only one unpaired electron in its d orbitals. Using the symbols ↑ and ↓ to represent electrons of opposite spins, complete the following d

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/42/M/J/16

The anti-inflammatory drug ibuprofen can be synthesised from benzene via the following six steps. (a) Draw circles around any chiral carbon atoms in the above five formulae. (b) Suggest the structures of compounds H and J and draw them in the boxes abo

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/42/M/J/16

(a) Describe and explain the trend in the solubility of the hydroxides down Group 2. (b) Calcium reacts vigorously with HCl (aq) producing H2(g). Ca(s) + 2HCl (aq) → CaCl 2(aq) + H2(g) (i) How would you expect the enthalpy change for this reactio

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/42/M/J/16

(a) Amino acids can be separated by electrophoresis. (i) Draw a labelled diagram of the apparatus used to separate a mixture by electrophoresis. (ii) Explain the principles of the separation of amino acids by electrophoresis. (b) Electrophoresis is

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/42/M/J/16

Esterases are enzymes that hydrolyse esters. Enzymes can be quite specific in the structures of the substrates they act upon. For example, an esterase isolated from the mould Aspergillus niger will hydrolyse phenyl ethanoate, CH3CO2C6H5, but not its iso

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/42/M/J/16

Cadmium ions form complexes with primary amines and with 1,2-diaminoethane. Cd2+(aq) + 4CH3NH2(aq) [Cd(CH3NH2)4]2+(aq) Kstab = 3.6 × 106 equilibrium I Cd2+(aq) + 2H2NCH2CH2NH2(aq) [Cd(H2NCH2CH2NH2)2]2+(aq) Kstab = 4.2 × 1010 equilibrium II (a)

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/42/M/J/16

(a) There are two isomeric complexes with the formula Pt(NH3)2Cl 2, one of which is an anti-cancer drug. (i) Draw diagrams to show the three-dimensional structures of the two isomers. (ii) Comment on the polarity of the two isomers of Pt(NH3)2Cl 2. Ex

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/42/M/J/16

(a) 2-bromopropane can be used to synthesise methylethylamine and 2-methylpropylamine. (i) Draw the structure of the intermediate X in the box above. [1] (ii) Suggest reagents and conditions for • reaction 1, .........................• reaction 2, .

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/42/M/J/16

Ethanoic acid is a weak acid. (a) Explain what is meant by the term weak acid. (b) The pKa values of four acids are listed below. (i) State the mathematical relationship between pKa and the acid dissociation constant Ka. (ii) With reference to acidi

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/42/M/J/16

(a) Magnesium nitrate, Mg(NO3)2, is very soluble in water. When a hot saturated solution of magnesium nitrate is cooled, crystals of the hydrate, Mg(NO3)2.6H2O, are formed. In the crystals, six water molecules bond to each Mg2+ ion, and some of these wa

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/42/M/J/16

A reaction sequence based on propan-1-ol is shown. (a) Reactions 1 and 2 can both be carried out using the same reagents. (i) Identify suitable reagents for reactions 1 and 2. (ii) State and explain how the reaction should be carried out to ensure

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/22/M/J/16

This question is about molecules with molecular formula C4H8O2. (a) Give the structural formulae of the pair of chain isomers with the formula C4H8O2 that are carboxylic acids. (b) (i) Give the structural formulae of a pair of positional isomers with th

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/22/M/J/16

Acidified potassium dichromate(VI) can oxidise ethanedioic acid, H2C2O4. The relevant half-equations are shown. (a) State the overall equation for the reaction between acidified dichromate(VI) ions and ethanedioic acid. (b) In an experiment a 0.242 g

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/22/M/J/16

The elements in Group 17, the halogens, and their compounds, show many similarities and trends in their properties. Some data are given for the elements fluorine to iodine. (a) (i) Explain the meaning of the term standard enthalpy change of atomisation.

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/22/M/J/16

(a) Complete the table to show the composition and identity of some atoms and ions. (b) The fifth to eighth ionisation energies of three elements in the third period of the Periodic Table are given. The symbols used for reference are not the actual symbo

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/22/M/J/16

In an experiment, various masses of solid barium hydroxide are added to 60.0 cm3 of a solution of hydrochloric acid contained in a polystyrene cup. In each experiment a fresh sample of the acid is taken and its initial temperature is measured. After th

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/52/O/N/15

It is possible to determine the relative molecular mass, Mr, of a small sample of a volatile liquid by measuring its mass and then heating to vaporise it to obtain its volume as a gas. (a) Explain how the relative molecular mass can be determined in th

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/52/O/N/15

(a) Aspartame is an artificial sweetener that has the structure shown below. (i) Draw a circle around each chiral centre in aspartame. In the stomach, aspartame is hydrolysed by acid to form three organic products. (ii) On the diagram above, use arrows

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/42/O/N/15

(a) Some metals are essential to biochemical processes. Complete the following table naming one metal in each case. (b) Enzymes are a special type of protein molecule that catalyse biochemical reactions. Explain briefly the mechanism by which an enz

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/42/O/N/15

(a) The sequence of bases in DNA is a code for the order of amino acids in the primary structure of proteins. The diagram represents the stages involved in the formation of a protein from DNA. (i) Identify the biochemical structures, A and B1, B2 etc.

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/42/O/N/15

(a) Sunset Yellow is a yellow colouring agent used in food and drinks, which can be made by the following route. In step 3 of this synthesis, a phenol-like compound, S, reacts with intermediate T made from amine R. Assume that the –SO3– Na+ group does

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/42/O/N/15

Boron forms many useful compounds. (a) The compound diborane, B2H6, can be used as a rocket fuel. It can be prepared by the reaction of boron trifluoride, BF3, with sodium borohydride, NaBH4. Balance this equation. .......BF3 + .......NaBH4 → ...

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/42/O/N/15

X is a metallic element. (a) (i) Draw a fully labelled diagram to show how the standard electrode potential, E o, of X^2+(aq) / X(s) could be measured. (ii) What are the conditions needed for the value measured to be a standard electrode potential? (

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/42/O/N/15

In aqueous solution, 2-chloro-2-methylpropane, (CH3)3CCl, reacts with sodium hydroxide, NaOH. This is a nucleophilic substitution reaction. (CH3)3CCl (aq) + NaOH(aq) → (CH3)3COH(aq) + NaCl (aq) (a) Show the mechanism for this reaction. Include all

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/42/O/N/15

The transition element iron is the most abundant element in the Earth’s core. (a) What is meant by the term transition element? (b) In aqueous solution, iron can form complex ions which contain ligands. (i) Name the type of bonding that occurs between

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/42/O/N/15

(a) Complete the table to show the number of unpaired electrons in the outer shell of each of the gaseous atoms, Na to Ar. (b) (i) Complete the table for the reactions of two Period 3 chlorides with water. (ii) Write an equation for the reaction betwee

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/42/O/N/15

(a) Calcium has atomic number 20. Complete the electronic structures for a calcium atom, 1s22s22p6................................. calcium ion in the +2 oxidation state. 1s22s22p6................................. (b) Calcium nitrate, Ca(NO3)2, is us

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/42/O/N/15

Halogenoalkanes are useful intermediates in the synthesis of a wide variety of compounds. (a) 2-bromobutane reacts in two different ways with sodium hydroxide depending on the conditions. When warmed with aqueous sodium hydroxide, 2-bromobutane produ

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/22/O/N/15

The elements in Period 3, Na, Mg, Al, P and S, all react with oxygen when heated in air. (a) (i) Give the formula of the oxide formed when each element is heated in air. One has been completed for you. Na = .....................,Mg = ....................

A Level CHEMISTRY v) Calculate the enthalpy change for this reaction, ∆Hhyd MgSO4. Include a sign in your answer.

Chemical reactions are accompanied by enthalpy changes. (a) Explain the meaning of the term standard enthalpy change of reaction. (b) The enthalpy change of hydration of anhydrous magnesium sulfate, ∆Hhyd MgSO4, can be calculated by carrying out two

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/22/O/N/15

(a) Fill the gaps in the table for each of the given particles. (b) One of the factors that determines the type of bonding present between the particles of a substance is the relative electronegativities of the bonded particles. (i) Explain the meanin

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/22/O/N/15

Each of the compounds below is treated separately with an excess of NaBH4. The product of each reaction is then heated with an excess of concentrated H2SO4. Which compounds give only one final product with the molecular formula C7H10?

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/O/N/19

Which reagents, when used in excess, can convert Y into Z?

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/O/N/19

Bromoethane undergoes nucleophilic substitution reactions. Which statements are correct?

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/O/N/19

Following fractional distillation of crude oil, which processes can be used to produce propene from larger hydrocarbon molecules?

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/O/N/19

Which statements about ammonia are correct?

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/O/N/19

Silicon forms a tetrachloride, SiCl 4. Which statements are correct?

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/O/N/19

The reaction pathway diagram for a reversible reaction is shown. Which statements are correct?

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/O/N/19

Carbon can exist as allotropes which include graphite, diamond and a fullerene. Which statements are correct?

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/O/N/19

A carbon monoxide molecule, CO, has three bonds between the carbon atom and the oxygen atom. Which features are present in one CO molecule?

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/O/N/19

Which gaseous molecules are polar?

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/O/N/19

Substance T was analysed and found to contain 62.07% carbon, 10.34% hydrogen and 27.59% oxygen. The infra-red spectrum of substance T is shown. Which substance could be T?

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/O/N/19

Compound Q can be hydrolysed by HCl (aq). The two products of this hydrolysis have the same empirical formula. What could Q be?

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/O/N/19

Esters can be prepared by the reaction of a carboxylic acid with an alcohol in the presence of concentrated sulfuric acid. Which row gives the correct names of the reagents that would be suitable to prepare ester Z?

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/O/N/19

The diagram shows the structure of Y. Two suggestions are made about Y. 1 Y can be oxidised by hot, acidified dichromate(VI) ions. 2 One mole of Y gives one mole of tri-iodomethane when it reacts with an excess of alkaline aqueous iodine. Which sugge

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/O/N/19

Compound X has stereoisomers and forms a precipitate when warmed with Fehling’s reagent. What could be the structure of compound X?

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/O/N/19

What is the smallest amount of oxygen molecules needed for the complete combustion of 40.0 g of methanol?

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/O/N/19

Propan-1-ol can be reacted with acidified potassium dichromate(VI) to form propanoic acid, reaction 1, or propanal, reaction 2. How can the reaction be carried out to ensure that reaction 2 occurs rather than reaction 1?

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/O/N/19

1-chloro-2-methylbutane reacts with sodium cyanide in ethanol in a nucleophilic substitution reaction. What is the most likely intermediate or transition state in this reaction?

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/O/N/19

An organic compound X reacts with hot, concentrated acidified potassium manganate(VII) solution to give a single carbon-containing product. What could be X?

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/O/N/19

The diagram shows the skeletal formula of phenazine. What is the empirical formula of phenazine?

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/O/N/19

Structural isomerism and stereoisomerism should be considered when answering this question. How many isomers with the formula C5H10 have structures that involve π bonding?

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/O/N/19

Ammonia, carbon dioxide and water react together to form ammonium carbonate. Which statement about this reaction is correct?

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/O/N/19

Which emission from an internal combustion engine contributes to the erosion of marble statues?

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/O/N/19

Solid sodium iodide reacts with concentrated sulfuric acid to form more than one product that contains sulfur. What is the lowest oxidation number of sulfur in these products?

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/O/N/19

The properties of chlorine, bromine and their compounds are compared. Which property is smaller for chlorine than for bromine?

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/O/N/19

Chlorate(V) ions, Cl O3–, are produced in the redox reaction between chlorine and hot aqueous sodium hydroxide. Oxidation numbers can be used to help balance the equation for this reaction. vCl 2(g) + wOH–(aq) → xCl –(aq) + yCl O3–(aq) + zH2O(l)

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/O/N/19

When equal volumes of saturated solutions of barium hydroxide and calcium hydroxide are mixed, a white precipitate, Y, forms. The mixture is filtered and carbon dioxide is bubbled through the filtrate, producing a second white precipitate, Z. What are

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/O/N/19

Which statement about the compounds of Group 2 elements magnesium to barium is correct?

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/O/N/19

Which diagram correctly shows the electronegativity of the elements Na, Mg, Al and Si plotted against their first ionisation energies?

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/O/N/19

Hydrated aluminium ions undergo the following reaction. [Al (H2O)6]3+(aq) + H2O(l) [Al (H2O)5OH]2+(aq) + H3O+(aq) Which statement about this reaction is correct?

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/O/N/19

The decomposition of SO3(g) is a dynamic equilibrium. 2SO3(g) 2SO2(g) + O2(g) What happens when the pressure of the system is increased?

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/O/N/19

When lead(II) sulfide, PbS, is heated in air, sulfur dioxide and lead(II) oxide are formed. What is the equation for the reaction between PbS and oxygen?

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/O/N/19

(NH4)2Cr2O7 decomposes when heated. (NH4)2Cr2O7 → N2 + 4H2O + Cr2O3 Which element is oxidised and which element is reduced?

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/O/N/19

Which equation correctly represents the standard enthalpy change of atomisation of the given element?

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/O/N/19

Which reaction is endothermic?

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/O/N/19

In this question you should assume the vapour behaves as an ideal gas. 0.175 g of a volatile liquid produces a vapour of volume 4.50 × 10^–5 m^3 at 100 °C and pressure of 1.013 × 10^5 Pa.

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/O/N/19

Which statement about the electrons in a ground state carbon atom is correct?

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/O/N/19

The graph shows the successive ionisation energies of element X and element Y. Both elements are in Period 3. Which statement is correct?

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/O/N/19

In this question it should be assumed that (NH4)2CO3.H2O(s) dissolves in water without causing an increase in volume. Which mass of (NH4)2CO3.H2O(s) should be added to 800 cm^3 of water to form a 0.100 mol dm^–3 solution of NH4+ ions?

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/O/N/19

The diagram shows a Boltzmann distribution of the energies of gaseous molecules and the activation energies, Ea, of a reaction with and without a catalyst. Which statement about this distribution curve is correct?

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/O/N/19

An oxidising agent that can oxidise ethanal to ethanoic acid or ethanoate ions will also oxidise methanoic acid, HCO2H, to carbon dioxide and water. Which reagents, on heating, will react differently with HCO2H and CH3CO2H?

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/M/J/19

In an organic synthesis, a 62% yield of product is achieved. Which conversions are consistent with this information?

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/M/J/19

Halogenoalkanes can be hydrolysed using aqueous sodium hydroxide. Which compounds tend to be hydrolysed by an SN1 mechanism?

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/M/J/19

The diagram shows a compound used as a flame retardant. Which statements about this structure are correct?

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/M/J/19

A small quantity of hot, concentrated sulfuric acid is added separately to solid samples of potassium halides, KX. Which potassium halides react and produce a mixture of products that include a halogen, X2?

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/M/J/19

Which reactions involving calcium and its compounds produce two gaseous products?

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/M/J/19

The manufacture of ammonia from nitrogen and hydrogen is an important industrial process. Which of the following would leave the equilibrium constant, Kp, for the formation of ammonia unchanged?

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/M/J/19

In which reactions are nitrogen atoms reduced?

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/M/J/19

Which statements about an atom of 99Tc are correct?

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/M/J/19

When O2 reacts with H2S the products are SO2 and H2O. Mixture Y contains an equal number of the two molecules shown, and no other molecules.

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/M/J/19

The diagram shows the infra-red spectrum of Q. What could be Q?

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/M/J/19

One molecule of compound R is shown. What is the name of compound R and how does its boiling point compare with that of butanoic acid?

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/M/J/19

The diagram shows that a carboxylic acid P may be formed from X, Y or Z. Which row is correct?

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/M/J/19

Which reagent could be used to distinguish between ethanal and propanal?

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/M/J/19

Propene, bromine and hydrogen bromide are mixed in the dark. A number of products are formed, some in very small quantities. Which substance will not be present in the mixture of products?

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/M/J/19

Which product can be made from bromoethane by an elimination reaction?

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/M/J/19

Alcohol W cannot be made by reducing a carboxylic acid with LiAl H4. Alcohol W gives only one product when dehydrated with concentrated sulfuric acid. What could be the identity of W?

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/M/J/19

A molecule of geraniol is shown. What is formed when geraniol is reacted with an excess of cold, dilute, acidified manganate(VII) ions?

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/M/J/19

The diagram shows the repeat unit of an addition polymer. What is the correct name for the monomer that would form this polymer?

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/M/J/19

Compound X does not show cis-trans isomerism. What could be the identity of compound X?

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/M/J/19

3-methylbut-1-ene can undergo different types of reaction. Which row correctly identifies the reaction types?

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/M/J/19

Which reaction gives a product that is an atmospheric pollutant causing acid rain?

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/M/J/19

Ammonium sulfate, (NH4)2SO4, and ammonium nitrate, NH4NO3, are used as fertilisers. These salts have different percentages by mass of nitrogen. They have the same effect as each other on the pH of wet neutral soil. Which row is correct?

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/M/J/19

An excess of chlorine was bubbled into 100 cm^3 of hot 6.0 mol dm^–3 sodium hydroxide. How many moles of sodium chloride would be produced in the reaction?

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/M/J/19

A white solid, Z, is soluble in water. A sample of Z is heated with a Bunsen burner until there is no further change. When the residue is shaken with water a solution is formed with no solid remaining. What could Z be?

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/M/J/19

How many of the solutions shown, when added to separate portions of magnesium sulfate solution, produce a white precipitate? HCl (aq) NH3(aq) (NH4)2CO3(aq) Ba(NO3)2(aq)

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/M/J/19

Elements D and E are both in Period 3. Element D has the smallest atomic radius in Period 3. There are only two elements in Period 3 which have a lower melting point than element E. Elements D and E react together to form compound L. Which compound cou

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/M/J/19

The eight elements sodium to argon are in the same period of the Periodic Table. The equation corresponding to the first ionisation energy is shown. X(g) → X+(g) + e– For which of these eight elements is the electron in this equation removed fr

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/M/J/19

Element Q readily oxidises in air. The oxide produced reacts with water to form a solution of very low pH. Where could element Q be found in the Periodic Table?

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/M/J/19

Which row is an example of heterogeneous catalysis?

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/M/J/19

Ethyl ethanoate undergoes the following reaction. Equal amounts of ethanoic acid and ethanol were mixed together and allowed to reach equilibrium. At equilibrium, the concentrations of both ethanoic acid and ethanol were 0.42 mol dm^–3. What is the c

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/M/J/19

X is either chlorine or an oxide of chlorine. X reacts with water, under suitable conditions, to form the two acids HCl and HCl O3 in the mole ratio of 1 (HCl ) : 5 (HCl O3). What could be X?

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/M/J/19

A reaction pathway diagram is shown. Which row is correct?

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/M/J/19

Which pair of substances are both simple molecular?

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/M/J/19

X, Y and Z are all gases that behave ideally and react according to the equation shown. X(g) + 2Y(g) → 2Z(g) When 3.0 mol of X and 3.0 mol of Y are placed inside a container with a volume of 1.0 dm3, they react to form the maximum amount of Z.

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/M/J/19

The table shows some properties of four substances. Which substance could be potassium iodide?

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/M/J/19

A σ bond is made between two carbon atoms in a molecule of ethene. Which diagram shows the orbital overlap that occurs to form this bond?

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/M/J/19

The first eight successive ionisation energies for two elements of Period 3 of the Periodic Table are shown in the graphs. What is the formula of the ionic compound formed from these elements?

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/M/J/19

Oxygen has three stable isotopes, 16O, 17O and 18O. All three isotopes are present in a sample of oxygen gas, O2, which was analysed using a mass spectrometer. How many peaks associated with the O2+ ion would be expected?

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/M/J/19

The Boltzmann distribution of molecular energies in a sample of aqueous hydrogen peroxide at room temperature is shown. Which diagram shows the Boltzmann distribution of molecular energies of aqueous hydrogen peroxide maintained at room temperature when a

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/M/J/19

Carboxylic acids can be prepared from alcohols, nitriles or esters. Which statements are correct?

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/F/M/19

The compounds listed are reacted with hydrogen cyanide. Which compounds produce a molecule containing a chiral centre?

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/F/M/19

Chlorine atoms in the upper atmosphere cause the breakdown of ozone. Cl + O3 → O2 + Cl O Cl O + O → Cl + O2 Which statements about these chlorine atoms are correct?

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/F/M/19

The diagram shows the structure of cholesterol. Which statements about cholesterol are correct?

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/F/M/19

Which types of bonding are present in ammonium carbonate, (NH4)2CO3?

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/F/M/19

Which statements about ceramics are correct?

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/F/M/19

Some polluting gases are removed from car exhaust fumes using a catalytic converter. Platinum or palladium can be used as the catalyst. The reactions are faster when platinum is the catalyst than they are when palladium is the catalyst. Which stateme

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/F/M/19

In which reactions is the underlined element or compound reduced?

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/F/M/19

In which pairs do both species have the same number of unpaired electrons in p orbitals?

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/F/M/19

In an experiment, 10 cm^3 of an organic compound, J, in the gaseous state is reacted with an excess of oxygen. Steam, 20 cm^3 of carbon dioxide and 5 cm^3 of nitrogen are the only products. All gas volumes were measured at the same temperature and pres

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/F/M/19

An infra-red spectrum shows a broad peak at 3000 cm^–1 and a strong peak at 1710 cm^–1. Which substance could have produced this spectrum?

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/F/M/19

1 mole of each of the following four compounds is reacted separately with: ● an excess of sodium ● an excess of sodium carbonate. Which compound produces the same volume of gas with each of the two reagents?

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/F/M/19

When compound X is heated with Cr2O72– / H+, a colour change from orange to green is observed. Two tests are carried out on the organic product of this reaction. What could be compound X?

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/F/M/19

Structural isomerism only should be considered when answering this question. All the isomeric alcohols with the molecular formula C5H12O are added separately to warm alkaline aqueous iodine. How many of the isomers give a yellow precipitate?

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/F/M/19

Menthol is a naturally occurring alcohol. When menthol is heated with concentrated sulfuric acid it reacts. The products formed include compound T. What could be the structure of compound T?

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/F/M/19

Which product is formed when 3-methylpentane-1,3,4-triol is heated under reflux with an excess of acidified potassium dichromate(VI)?

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/F/M/19

Bromopropane reacts with water as shown. CH3CH2CH2Br + H2O → CH3CH2CH2OH + HBr Which statement is correct?

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/F/M/19

Structural isomerism and stereoisomerism should be considered when answering this question. 2-bromopentane is heated with an excess of ethanolic sodium hydroxide. How many different hydrocarbons are produced?

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/F/M/19

Many reactions take place in the engine and catalytic converter of a car. Which pair of substances is produced both by the reactions in a car engine and in a catalytic converter?

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/F/M/19

Compound L has the molecular formula C10H16. A sample of L reacted with an excess of hot, concentrated, acidified potassium manganate(VII). Compound M is produced. What could be the structure of compound L?

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/F/M/19

How many structural isomers are there of trichloropropane, C3H5Cl 3?

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/F/M/19

Ammonia, NH3, and hydrazine, NH2NH2, are two compounds of nitrogen, N2. Which statement is correct?

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/F/M/19

Under standard conditions, which statement is correct?

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/F/M/19

The table shows some reactions of a white compound, G. What could be the identity of G?

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/F/M/19

L, M and N are Group 2 metals. L reacts more vigorously with dilute hydrochloric acid than N does. M(OH)2 is more soluble than N(OH)2. What could be the identities of L, M and N?

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/F/M/19

When calcium nitrate thermally decomposes, oxygen is one of the products. Which volume of oxygen is produced under room conditions when 0.50 mol of calcium nitrate thermally decomposes?

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/F/M/19

Metal T reacts with water to produce a colourless solution. A white precipitate is produced when this colourless solution is mixed with aqueous sulfuric acid. What is metal T?

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/F/M/19

A solid Period 3 element, Q, is reacted with oxygen gas. Compound R is formed. When R is added to water the pH decreases. What could be the empirical formula of R?

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/F/M/19

X, Y and Z are elements in Period 3 of the Periodic Table. The results of some experiments carried out with compounds of these elements are shown. Which statement could be correct?

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/F/M/19

When copper is added to a solution of silver ions, the following equilibrium is established. What is the concentration of silver ions at equilibrium when [Cu^2+] = 0.10 mol dm^–3?

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/F/M/19

Acidified potassium manganate(VII) reacts with iron(II) ethanedioate, FeC2O4. The reactions taking place are shown. How many moles of iron(II) ethanedioate react with one mole of potassium manganate(VII)?

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/F/M/19

The equation for a chemical reaction is shown. All substances are in their standard states. XeF6 + 3H2O → XeO3 + 6HF Which statement describes the standard enthalpy change of reaction for this reaction?

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/F/M/19

The standard enthalpy changes of combustion of carbon, hydrogen and methanol are shown. Which expression gives the standard enthalpy change of formation of methanol in kJ mol^–1?

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/F/M/19

P, Q and R represent three different structures of an element. Which structures are giant molecular?

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/F/M/19

A sample of gas occupies 240 cm^3 at 37 °C and 100 kPa. How many moles of gas are present in the sample?

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/F/M/19

Histidine is an amino acid. What are the approximate bond angles 1, 2, and 3?

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/F/M/19

The eight species that follow all have covalent bonds. In which pair do the species have different shapes from each other?

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/F/M/19

Which statement about a 3p orbital is correct?

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/F/M/19

A 3.7 g sample of copper(II) carbonate is added to 25 cm^3 of 2.0 mol dm^–3 hydrochloric acid. Which volume of gas is produced under room conditions?

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/F/M/19

The Boltzmann distribution is shown for a sample of gas at an initial temperature, T1. The sample of gas was heated to temperature, T2. What is the correct distribution for the higher temperature, T2?

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/F/M/19

The compound cis-hex-3-enal is responsible for the characteristic smell of cut grass. Which reagents will react with cis-hex-3-enal?

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/O/N/18

Which statements about 2-methylbutan-1-ol are correct?

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/O/N/18

Halogenoalkanes can undergo reaction with hydroxide ions. RBr + OH– → ROH + Br – The reaction of some halogenoalkanes proceeds by the SN1 mechanism. Which statements about the SN1 mechanism are correct?

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/O/N/18

Which bromopropenes would react with cold bromine in the dark to form a product containing a chiral carbon atom?

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/O/N/18

Which statements concerning calcium hydroxide are correct?

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/O/N/18

A sample containing x mol of Al 2Cl 6 is dissolved in water to give solution W. In order to precipitate all of the aluminium as its hydroxide, y mol of sodium hydroxide are required. More of the alkali is added to re-dissolve the precipitate, giving

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/O/N/18

The equation represents an equilibrium. 4NH3(g) + 5O2(g) 4NO(g) + 6H2O(g) ∆H = –900 kJ mol–1 What would increase the concentration of NO at equilibrium?

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/O/N/18

Aqueous iron(II) sulfate can take part in redox reactions. 6FeSO4 + 7H2SO4 + Na2Cr2O7 → 3Fe2(SO4)3 + Cr2(SO4)3 + Na2SO4 + 7H2O Which redox changes occur during this reaction?

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/O/N/18

The melting point of chlorine is lower than the melting point of iodine. Which statements help to explain this difference?

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/O/N/18

Zinc reacts with hydrochloric acid according to the following equation. Zn + 2HCl → ZnCl 2 + H2 Which statements are correct?

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/O/N/18

The infra-red spectrum of compound L is shown. What could be the structure of L?

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/O/N/18

Which compound can be used to make propanoic acid by treatment with a single reagent?

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/O/N/18

Compound Y gives methanol and sodium ethanoate on treatment with aqueous sodium hydroxide. What is the structure of Y?

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/O/N/18

Compound X has the empirical formula C2H3O. Compound X reacts with 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine reagent to give an orange precipitate and also decolourises warmed acidified potassium manganate(VII) solution. What could be the identity of X?

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/O/N/18

The reactions of four organic compounds are given in the table. Which compound could be propan-2-ol?

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/O/N/18

A halogenoalkane has the molecular formula C5H11Br. The halogenoalkane does not form an alkene when treated with ethanolic sodium hydroxide. What could be the halogenoalkane?

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/O/N/18

Which statement about compound Q is correct?

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/O/N/18

Compound P reacts separately with KOH(aq) and HBr. What are the mechanisms of these two reactions?

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/O/N/18

Polyethene is made by the polymerisation of ethene. Which statement is correct?

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/O/N/18

The diagram shows a molecule that has σ bonds and π bonds. How many σ bonds are present in this molecule?

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/O/N/18

There are three structural isomers with the formula C5H12. Which formulae correctly represent these three structural isomers?

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/O/N/18

If ammonium cyanate is heated in the absence of air, the only product of the reaction is urea, CO(NH2)2. No other products are formed in the reaction. What is the formula of the cyanate ion present in ammonium cyanate?

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/O/N/18

The product of the Contact process is Z. Which reaction or process leads to the formation of a gas that can neutralise an aqueous solution of Z?

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/O/N/18

Chlorine reacts with both hot and cold sodium hydroxide to form products containing chlorine. Cold sodium hydroxide forms sodium chlorate(X) and hot sodium hydroxide forms sodium chlorate(Y). X and Y are oxidation numbers. Which equation is correct?

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/O/N/18

Which statement about the halogens is correct?

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/O/N/18

In which row are all statements comparing magnesium and barium correct?

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/O/N/18

A 4.00 g sample of an anhydrous Group 2 metal nitrate is heated strongly until there is no further change. A solid residue of mass 1.37 g is formed. Which metal is present?

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/O/N/18

Which observations are made when a sample of silicon chloride, SiCl 4, is added to a beaker of water?

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/O/N/18

The melting points of the Period 3 elements phosphorus to argon are shown in the table. Which factor explains the changes in melting points from phosphorus to argon?

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/O/N/18

Nitrogen and hydrogen can react together to form ammonia. The formation of ammonia is exothermic. The rate and yield of the reaction can be altered by changing the conditions under which the reaction is carried out. Which row shows the effects of a

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/O/N/18

In a chemical system the particles involved have a range of energies. This can be shown on a graph called the Boltzmann distribution. Which statement correctly explains the effect of a catalyst on the particles in a chemical system?

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/O/N/18

In this question, all pressures are measured in atm. The equation represents the equilibrium between three gaseous substances X, Y and Z. X + 3Y 2Z At temperature T1, the numerical value of Kp, the equilibrium constant, is 2. At a higher t

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/O/N/18

Ammonium metavanadate, NH4VO3, can be used to make a solution containing VO2Cl, which contains chloride ions. What is the change in the oxidation number of vanadium in this reaction?

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/O/N/18

Ethanol is increasingly being used as a fuel for cars. The standard enthalpy change of formation of carbon dioxide is –393 kJ mol^–1. The standard enthalpy change of formation of water is –286 kJ mol^–1. The standard enthalpy change of formation of etha

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/O/N/18

Exactly 1.00 g of a metallic element reacts completely with 300 cm^3 of oxygen at 298 K and 1 atm pressure to form an oxide which contains O^2– ions. The volume of one mole of gas at this temperature and pressure is 24.0 dm^3. What could be the ident

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/O/N/18

Flask X contains 5 dm^3 of helium at 12 kPa pressure and flask Y contains 10 dm^3 of neon at 6 kPa pressure. If the flasks are connected at constant temperature, what is the final pressure?

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/O/N/18

In which set do all the molecules have all their atoms arranged in one plane?

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/O/N/18

Rubidium and bromine form ions that are isoelectronic. Each ion has 36 electrons. Which row is correct?

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/O/N/18

Beams of charged particles are deflected by an electrical field. The angle of deflection of a particle is proportional to its charge / mass ratio. In an experiment protons are deflected by an angle of +15°. In another experiment under identical conditi

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/O/N/18

Which statement about enthalpy changes is correct?

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/O/N/18

The ester C2H5CO2CH2CH2CH3 can be made in a school or college laboratory by a sequence of four reactions or fewer using compound Z as the only organic material. What might be the identity of compound Z?

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/M/J/18

The diagram shows an experimental set-up which can be used in several different experiments. Which processes could be demonstrated by using the above apparatus?

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/M/J/18

Which pairs of compounds may be distinguished from each other by testing with alkaline aqueous iodine?

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/M/J/18

Which compounds show geometrical (cis-trans) isomerism?

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/M/J/18

Solid barium oxide is added to some ammonium sulfate solution in a test-tube and the mixture is warmed. A piece of damp red litmus paper is held over the mouth of the test-tube. Which observations would be made?

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/M/J/18

Three samples of chlorine gas each contain 0.710 g of chlorine. Each sample is reacted with a reagent. ● In the first reaction a sample is reacted completely with hydrogen gas. ● In the second reaction a sample is reacted completely with cold NaOH(aq).

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/M/J/18

The temperature of a reversible gas phase reaction is increased. Which statements are always correct?

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/M/J/18

For which reactions does the value of ∆H o represent both a standard enthalpy change of combustion and a standard enthalpy change of formation?

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/M/J/18

In which pairs do both species have the same number of electrons?

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/M/J/18

For complete combustion, 1 mol of an organic compound X requires 2.5 mol of O2. Which compounds could be X?

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/M/J/18

The infra-red spectrum of an organic compound is shown. Which compound could give this spectrum?

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/M/J/18

The ester ethyl butanoate can be hydrolysed using an excess of dilute sodium hydroxide solution. Which substance is a product of this reaction?

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/M/J/18

Ethanal, CH3CHO, is used to make product R in a three-stage synthesis. Two molecules of Q react to give one molecule of R plus two molecules of water. R has two ester functional groups in each molecule. R does not react with sodium. What is the empi

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/M/J/18

Which statement about butanone is correct?

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/M/J/18

Which alcohol will react with an acidified solution of potassium dichromate(VI) to produce a ketone containing six carbon atoms?

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/M/J/18

When warm water is added to halogenoalkane X, an SN1 reaction occurs. AgNO3(aq) is then added; a yellow precipitate is formed. What could be X?

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/M/J/18

Structural isomerism and stereoisomerism should be considered when answering this question. A colourless liquid, C5H11Cl , exists as a mixture of two optical isomers. When heated with sodium hydroxide in ethanol, a mixture of only two alkenes is forme

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/M/J/18

Primary halogenoalkanes undergo hydrolysis reactions. Which reaction would occur most rapidly if they are all warmed to the same temperature?

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/M/J/18

Maleic acid is used in the food industry and for stabilising drugs. It is the cis-isomer of butenedioic acid and has the structural formula HO2CCH=CHCO2H. What is the product formed from the reaction of maleic acid with cold, dilute, acidified manganat

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/M/J/18

Which equation represents a valid propagation step in the chlorination of ethane?

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/M/J/18

Compound Y is treated with an excess of hydrogen gas in the presence of a nickel catalyst. The product is fully saturated. What is the number of chiral carbon atoms in the product?

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/M/J/18

Sulfur dioxide can be catalytically oxidised by an oxide of nitrogen in the atmosphere. Which reaction shows the regeneration of the catalyst?

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/M/J/18

The dative covalent bond can be represented by an arrow, . The arrow points towards the atom receiving the lone pair. Which diagram of an ammonium ion is correct?

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/M/J/18

When concentrated sulfuric acid is added to solid sodium bromide, bromine gas is produced, along with a number of other products. However when concentrated sulfuric acid is added to solid sodium chloride only hydrogen chloride and sodium hydrogensulfate a

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/M/J/18

In Group 2 of the Periodic Table, the properties of the elements and their compounds show regular change down the group. Which property shows a decrease from magnesium to barium?

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/M/J/18

To manufacture cement, 1000 million tonnes of limestone are decomposed each year. To manufacture lime for agriculture, 200 million tonnes of limestone are decomposed each year. What is the total mass of carbon dioxide in million tonnes produced from th

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/M/J/18

In this question, X represents an atom of chlorine, bromine or iodine. Which explanation for the variation in volatility down Group 17 is correct?

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/M/J/18

The graphs show trends in four physical properties of elements in Period 3, excluding argon. Which graph has electronegativity on the y-axis?

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/M/J/18

Which oxide does not react with cold, dilute sodium hydroxide to produce a salt?

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/M/J/18

A chemical company used a catalyst in a chemical process. The company has now decided not to use the catalyst but to increase the temperature so that the rate of the reaction is the same as it was when the catalyst was used. Which statement about the n

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/M/J/18

In a particular reversible reaction the yield of product is increased ● if the temperature is increased; ● if the pressure is decreased. Which equation could describe this reversible reaction?

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/M/J/18

Materials can be classified by their chemical structures. Four common types of structure are metallic, ionic, simple molecular and giant molecular. Some physical properties of four substances are shown in the table. Which substance has a simple mole

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/M/J/18

Sulfur reacts with concentrated nitric acid in a redox reaction. S + 4HNO3 → SO2 + 4NO2 + 2H2O What are the changes in oxidation number of sulfur and of nitrogen in this reaction?

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/M/J/18

The enthalpy change of reaction 1 is –114 kJ mol–1. 2NaOH(aq) + H2SO4(aq) → Na2SO4(aq) + 2H2O(l) reaction 1 By using this information, what is the most likely value for the enthalpy change of reaction 2? Ba(OH)2(aq) + 2HCl (aq) → BaCl

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/M/J/18

Which gas is likely to deviate most from ideal gas behaviour?

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/M/J/18

The gases X and Y react to form Z. X(g) + Y(g) Z(g) An equilibrium mixture of these three gases is compressed at constant temperature. What will be the changes in the mole fraction of Z and in Kp?

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/M/J/18

Compound J burns in excess oxygen to give carbon dioxide and water only. When a 3.00 g sample of compound J is burnt in excess oxygen, 4.40 g of carbon dioxide and 1.80 g of water are formed. What is the empirical formula of J?

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/M/J/18

In which pair does the second substance have a lower boiling point than the first substance?

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/M/J/18

The electronic configuration of an atom of sulfur is 1s^2 2s^2 2p^6 3s^2 3p^4. How many valence shell and unpaired electrons are present in one sulfur atom?

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/M/J/18

Which feature is present in both ethene and poly(ethene)?

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/M/J/18

The structure of lactic acid is shown. Which esters might form when lactic acid is heated?

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/F/M/18

Propanal reacts with hydrogen cyanide to form 2-hydroxybutanenitrile. A suitable catalyst for this reaction is sodium cyanide. Which statements about the reaction of propanal with hydrogen cyanide are correct?

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/F/M/18

Organic compound X gives a precipitate when warmed with aqueous silver nitrate. This precipitate dissolves when concentrated aqueous ammonia is added. What could X be?

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/F/M/18

Poly(ethene) and PVC are examples of addition polymers. Which statements are correct?

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/F/M/18

In which different forms does nitrogen exist in compounds?

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/F/M/18

Chlorine reacts with hot aqueous sodium hydroxide. Which oxidation states does chlorine show in the products of this reaction?

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/F/M/18

In which reactions does NH3 behave as a Brønsted-Lowry acid?

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/F/M/18

Ammonia and chlorine react together in the gas phase. 8NH3 + 3Cl 2 → N2 + 6NH4Cl Which statements are correct?

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/F/M/18

A container is partially filled with hot water, sealed and left to cool. Which statements are correct?

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/F/M/18

Compound Q contains 40% carbon by mass. What could Q be?

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/F/M/18

How many structural isomers with the molecular formula C4H10O give infra-red absorptions both at approximately 1200 cm^–1 and at approximately 3400 cm^–1?

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/F/M/18

Alcohols, aldehydes and nitriles can each be converted into carboxylic acids. Which descriptions of their conversions into carboxylic acids are correct?

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/F/M/18

Ethanedioic acid has the formula HO2CCO2H. What is the formula of aluminium ethanedioate?

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/F/M/18

A reaction occurs when a sample of 1-chloropropane is heated under reflux with sodium hydroxide dissolved in ethanol. Which row is correct?

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/F/M/18

Compound X produces a carboxylic acid when heated under reflux with acidified potassium dichromate(VI). Compound X does not react with sodium metal. What could be the identity of compound X?

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/F/M/18

Which volume of hydrogen, measured under room conditions, is produced when 0.160 g of methanol reacts with an excess of sodium?

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/F/M/18

Structural isomerism and stereoisomerism should be considered when answering this question. The molecular formula of compound X is C5H12O. Compound X: ● reacts with alkaline aqueous iodine ● can be dehydrated to form two alkenes only. What coul

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/F/M/18

Which compound reacts with 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine reagent but does not react with Tollens’ reagent?

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/F/M/18

Compound X can be converted into compound Y in a single step. What could be the identity of X?

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/F/M/18

An organic ion containing a carbon atom with a negative charge is called a carbanion. An organic ion containing a carbon atom with a positive charge is called a carbocation. The reaction between aqueous sodium hydroxide and 1-bromobutane proceeds by

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/F/M/18

Which types of stereoisomerism are shown by 2,4-dimethylhex-2-ene?

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/F/M/18

One molecule of ammonia reacts with one molecule of ethyl methanoate, HCO2C2H5, to produce one molecule of methanamide, HCONH2, and only one other molecule, X. One molecule of methanamide decomposes on heating strongly to produce one molecule of ammoni

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/F/M/18

When burned, sulfur forms a gaseous product X which can be oxidised to produce a gas Y. Gas Y reacts with water to produce a product Z. Which row correctly shows the oxidation states of sulfur in X, Y and Z?

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/F/M/18

Bromine is extracted from sea-water. In the final stages of the process two redox reactions take place. Br2(aq) + SO2(g) + 2H2O(l) → 2HBr(aq) + H2SO4(aq) 2HBr(aq) + Cl 2(g) → Br2(g) + 2HCl (aq) Which row is correct?

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/F/M/18

The volatility of the Group 17 elements, chlorine, bromine and iodine, decreases down the group. What is responsible for this?

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/F/M/18

A solution contains both Mg^2+ (aq) and Sr^2+ (aq) at the same concentration. The solution is divided into two equal portions. Aqueous sodium hydroxide is added dropwise to one portion. Dilute sulfuric acid is added dropwise to the other portion. Whi

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/F/M/18

X, Y and Z are three elements in the third period. ● X reacts with chlorine to give a liquid product. ● Y reacts with chlorine to give a solid product that dissolves in water to give a solution of pH 7. ● Z reacts with chlorine to give a solid product t

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/F/M/18

Which oxide is insoluble in aqueous sodium hydroxide?

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/F/M/18

Which statement about the effect of a catalyst on a reversible reaction is correct?

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/F/M/18

The reaction between sulfur dioxide and oxygen is reversible. 2SO2 + O2 2SO3 ∆H o = –196 kJ mol^–1 Which conditions of pressure and temperature favour the reverse reaction?

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/F/M/18

Which reaction is not a redox reaction?

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/F/M/18

Hess’ Law and bond energy data can be used to calculate the enthalpy change of a reaction. Bromoethane, CH3CH2Br, can be made by reacting ethene with hydrogen bromide. CH2=CH2 + HBr → CH3CH2Br What is the enthalpy change for this reaction?

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/F/M/18

Which equation represents the standard enthalpy change of formation of water?

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/F/M/18

The gas laws can be summarised in the ideal gas equation. pV = nRT 0.960 g of oxygen gas is contained in a vessel of volume 7.00 × 10^–3 m^3 at a temperature of 30 °C. Assume that the gas behaves as an ideal gas. What is the pressure in the vess

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/F/M/18

Sodium hydroxide neutralises acid. H+ + OH– → H2O In a 11 000 dm^3 sample of an aqueous solution, the concentration of acid, [H+], is 1.26 × 10^– 3 mol dm^–3. Which mass of solid sodium hydroxide neutralises the acid?

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/F/M/18

Which mass of solid residue is obtained from the thermal decomposition of 4.10 g of anhydrous calcium nitrate?

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/F/M/18

Which molecule contains a nitrogen atom with sp hybridised orbitals?

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/F/M/18

Drinking water may contain dissolved calcium hydrogencarbonate, Ca(HCO3)2. How many electrons are present in a hydrogencarbonate anion?

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/F/M/18

The electronic configuration of the two outermost shells of an atom is 3s^2 3p^6 3d^5 4s^2. What is this atom?

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/F/M/18

What are the shapes of the molecules of water and boron trifluoride?

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/F/M/18

Carboxylic acids can be converted into their salts by a number of reactions at room temperature. Which reactions would produce sodium butanoate and a gas?

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/O/N/17

Compound M is an important ingredient in perfume. M reacts with HCN. Which statements about this reaction are correct?

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/O/N/17

Bromoethane is heated under reflux with concentrated aqueous NaOH. Which statements are correct?

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/O/N/17

Which statements are correct for an SN2 mechanism?

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/O/N/17

Modern cars are fitted with catalytic converters to reduce atmospheric pollution caused by unwanted reactions during the combustion of the fuel. Which statements are correct?

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/O/N/17

Which statements correctly describe a trend on going down Group 2?

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/O/N/17

Methanoic acid, HCO2H, and hydrocyanic acid, HCN, can both behave as acids. A solution of methanoic acid has a lower pH than a solution of hydrocyanic acid of the same concentration. Which statements explain this?

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/O/N/17

Hydrogen sulfide can be oxidised to form sulfur dioxide. 2H2S + 3O2 → 2SO2 + 2H2O Which statements are correct?

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/O/N/17

The chlorine oxide free radical, Cl O•, is produced by the reaction between chlorine atoms and ozone. Cl • + O3 → Cl O• + O2 Which features are present in the chlorine oxide free radical?

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/O/N/17

In 2011 an international group of scientists agreed to add two new elements to the Periodic Table. Both elements had been made artificially and are called flerovium, Fl, and livermorium, Lv. From the information about atoms in the table, which statements

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/O/N/17

An ester with an odour of banana has the following formula. Which pair of reactants, under suitable conditions, will produce this ester?

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/O/N/17

Compound G ● has a chiral centre, ● gives a positive result with alkaline aqueous iodine, ● does not give a silver mirror with Tollens’ reagent. What could compound G be?

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/O/N/17

What are the only structures formed when butan-2-ol is heated with concentrated H2SO4?

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/O/N/17

When compound X is warmed with dilute, acidified potassium dichromate(VI) there is no colour change. X does not give an orange precipitate with 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine reagent. What could X be?

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/O/N/17

Many, but not all, organic reactions need to be heated before a reaction occurs. Which reaction occurs quickly at room temperature (20 °C)?

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/O/N/17

Equal volumes of aqueous silver nitrate were added to separate small volumes of bromoethane and iodoethane in two test-tubes. The test-tubes were shaken. Which row about the observations made for bromoethane is correct?

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/O/N/17

2,3-dimethylpent-2-ene, (CH3)2C=C(CH3)CH2CH3, is treated with cold, dilute KMnO4. The product of this reaction is treated with an excess of concentrated H2SO4 at 180 °C, giving a mixture of isomeric hydrocarbons with molecular formula C7H12. What is th

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/O/N/17

Which types of bond are broken and formed in the addition polymerisation of alkenes?

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/O/N/17

Which compound would produce two different carboxylic acids when treated with hot, concentrated, acidified manganate(VII) ions?

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/O/N/17

The diagram shows the skeletal formula of citric acid. What is the molecular formula of citric acid?

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/O/N/17

Which compound does not exhibit stereoisomerism?

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/O/N/17

X is a mixture of two compounds of Group 2 elements. X undergoes thermal decomposition to produce a white solid and only two gaseous products. One of the gaseous products relights a glowing splint. What could be the components of mixture X?

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/O/N/17

The reaction of nitrogen and oxygen to produce oxides of nitrogen happens at high temperatures in car engines or lightning strikes during thunderstorms. What is the main reason for these reactions requiring such high temperatures?

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/O/N/17

Sodium bromide reacts with concentrated sulfuric acid. Which observation will be made?

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/O/N/17

In an experiment, 0.125 mol of chlorine gas, Cl 2, is reacted with an excess of cold, aqueous sodium hydroxide. One of the products is a compound of sodium, oxygen and chlorine. Which mass of this product is formed?

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/O/N/17

Exactly 3.705 kg of substance Y are needed to neutralise 100 moles of HCl (aq). What could be substance Y?

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/O/N/17

Radium is an element below barium in Group 2 of the Periodic Table. Which equation shows what happens when solid radium nitrate, Ra(NO3)2, is heated strongly?

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/O/N/17

Element Z has a giant structure. The chloride of Z reacts with water to give a solution with a pH less than 5. Which row shows two elements which could be Z?

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/O/N/17

The relative magnitude of the property X of five elements is shown. P, Q, R, S and T are all in Period 3 and have consecutive atomic numbers. Which row shows a correct pairing of property X and element R?

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/O/N/17

Which change alters the activation energy of a given reaction?

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/O/N/17

A large excess of marble chips was reacted with 25 cm^3 of 1.0 mol dm^–3 hydrochloric acid at 40 °C. How will the result be different when the reaction is repeated with 60 cm^3 of 0.5 mol dm^–3 hydrochloric acid at 40 °C?

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/O/N/17

Nitrogen dioxide, NO2, is a brown gas. Dinitrogen tetroxide, N2O4, is a colourless gas. An equilibrium is established between NO2 and N2O4 in a closed vessel. 2NO2(g) N2O4(g) ∆H = –57 kJ mol–1 brown colourless Which row describes the effects

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/O/N/17

Which statement is always correct for an oxidation reaction?

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/O/N/17

The following data are needed for this question. What is ∆H o for the reaction shown? P4O10(s) + 6H2O(l) → 4H3PO4(s)

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/O/N/17

In calculating the enthalpy change, ∆H, of an experiment involving solutions, the mass of the solution, m, specific heat capacity of the solution, c, and the temperature change, ∆T, are needed. ∆T = Tfinal – Tinitial Which expression for ∆H is corre

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/O/N/17

A sample of an ideal gas is contained at a constant temperature of 300 K in a gas syringe. The pressure is increased and a graph of pV/RT against pressure is plotted. Which graph correctly represents the results?

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/O/N/17

Ethane burns in oxygen to produce carbon dioxide and water vapour. Which bond angles are present in the molecules of ethane and its combustion products?

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/O/N/17

The airbags in cars contain sodium azide, NaN3, and an excess of potassium nitrate, KNO3. In a car accident, the reactions shown occur, producing nitrogen. This causes the airbag to inflate rapidly. 2NaN3 → 2Na + 3N2 10Na + 2KNO3 → K2O +

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/O/N/17

Two hydrocarbons have the formulae CWHX and CYHZ. W, X, Y and Z represent different whole numbers. W / X = Y / Z Which row is correct when comparing the two hydrocarbons?

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/O/N/17

In which pair do the atoms contain the same number of neutrons?

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/O/N/17

Propanoic acid occurs naturally as a result of the bacterial fermentation of milk and is partly responsible for the flavour of Swiss cheese. Which starting materials can be used to produce propanoic acid?

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/F/M/17

Which compounds react with alkaline aqueous iodine to give a pale yellow precipitate of tri-iodomethane?

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/F/M/17

Which statements help to explain the mechanism of the reaction between 1-chloropropane and ammonia?

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/F/M/17

Which compounds can be obtained from but-2-ene in a single reaction?

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/F/M/17

Sodium chloride and sodium iodide react with concentrated sulfuric acid. Which statements are correct?

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/F/M/17

Three test-tubes, X, Y, and Z, each contain a small amount of water. ● A small amount of NaCl is added to test-tube X. ● A small amount of SiCl 4 is added to test-tube Y. ● A small amount of Al Cl 3 is added to test-tube Z. After a short tim

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/F/M/17

Sulfur dioxide and oxygen react in the gas phase. 2SO2(g) + O2(g) 2SO3(g) ∆H = –197 kJ mol–1 Which statements are correct?

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/F/M/17

Which of these statements are always correct?

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/F/M/17

When a sample of a gas is compressed at constant temperature from 1500 kPa to 6000 kPa, its volume changes from 76.0 cm^3 to 20.5 cm^3. Which statements are possible explanations for this result?

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/F/M/17

Nitrogen and phosphorus are both in Group 15 of the Periodic Table. Phosphorus forms a chloride with the formula PCl 5 but nitrogen does not form NCl 5. Which statements help to explain this?

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/F/M/17

Which two compounds can react together to produce an ester?

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/F/M/17

Compound X, CH3CH(OH)CH(CHO)CH3, is heated under reflux with an excess of acidified K2Cr2O7 to form compound Y. Both X and Y are separately warmed with Fehling’s solution and the observations noted. What are the observations?

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/F/M/17

CH3CH2COCH2CH3 reacts with hydrogen cyanide to form an organic product called a cyanohydrin. Which statement is correct?

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/F/M/17

Ethane-1,2-diol has the following structure. Without breaking the C–C bond, there are five possible oxidation products. What is the total number of aldehyde groups and carboxylic acid groups in these five products?

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/F/M/17

Propan-2-ol undergoes many reactions. Which row is correct?

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/F/M/17

Diols in which both hydroxy groups are bonded to the same carbon can spontaneously eliminate a molecule of water to produce a carbonyl compound. Which compound, after complete hydrolysis, gives a positive reaction with Tollens’ reagent?

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/F/M/17

Polymerisation of ethene gives poly(ethene). How does the bonding between carbon atoms in poly(ethene) compare with that in ethene?

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/F/M/17

Propene undergoes a variety of reactions. Which row is correct?

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/F/M/17

Which radical is most likely to form by the homolytic fission of one covalent bond in bromochloromethane, CH2BrCl ?

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/F/M/17

Kerosene is used as an aircraft fuel. Q is one of the molecules in kerosene and has the skeletal formula shown. Other structural isomers of this molecule are also found in kerosene. Which structure is a structural isomer of Q?

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/F/M/17

Structural isomerism and stereoisomerism should be considered when answering this question. How many isomers with the formula C4H8 have structures that contain a π bond?

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/F/M/17

Methylamine, CH3NH2, has very similar chemical properties to ammonia, NH3. Methylamine reacts with hydrogen chloride to form a white crystalline salt, methylammonium chloride. CH3NH2 + HCl → CH3NH3+Cl – A sample of methylammonium chloride i

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/F/M/17

Z is an anhydrous compound of a Group 2 element. When it is heated, Z undergoes thermal decomposition to produce two different gases. Z has relatively low thermal stability compared to other Group 2 compounds containing the same anion as Z. What is com

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/F/M/17

In an experiment, 0.600 mol of chlorine gas, Cl 2, is reacted with an excess of hot aqueous sodium hydroxide. One of the products is NaCl O3. Which mass of NaCl O3 is formed?

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/F/M/17

Some uses of chlorine and bromine are given. Which is a use of bromine?

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/F/M/17

The magnitude of property X of five elements from the third period of the Periodic Table, P, Q, R, S and T is shown. P, Q, R, S and T have consecutive atomic numbers. The letters do not represent the symbols of the elements. Which row correctly identifies

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/F/M/17

Why does barium react more rapidly with cold water than magnesium does?

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/F/M/17

Which reagent, when mixed with ammonium sulfate and then heated, liberates ammonia?

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/F/M/17

The electrical conductivities of two compounds, Y and Z, are shown in the table. What could compounds Y and Z be?

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/F/M/17

Ammonia is manufactured from nitrogen and hydrogen using the Haber process. N2(g) + 3H2(g) 2NH3(g) What is the expression for Kc for this equilibrium?

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/F/M/17

Oxidation of ethanedioate ions by acidified manganate(VII) ions is very slow at room temperature. 2MnO4– + 5C2O42– + 16H+ → 2Mn2+ + 10CO2 + 8H2O Mn2+ ions catalyse this reaction. Which graph shows how the concentration of acidified mang

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/F/M/17

All the reactants and products of an exothermic reaction are gaseous. Which statement about this reaction is correct?

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/F/M/17

HOCl (aq) is the molecule that kills bacteria when chlorine is added to water. The following reaction produces this molecule. Cl 2(g) + H2O(I) HOCl (aq) + H+(aq) + Cl –(aq) Which statement about this reaction is correct?

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/F/M/17

A student mixed 25.0 cm^3 of 4.00 mol dm^–3 hydrochloric acid with an equal volume of 4.00 mol dm^–3 sodium hydroxide. The initial temperature of both solutions was 15.0 °C. The maximum temperature recorded was 30.0 °C. Using these res

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/F/M/17

Which gas sample contains the fewest molecules?

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/F/M/17

The characteristic smell of garlic is due to alliin. What are the approximate bond angles x, y and z in a molecule of alliin?

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/F/M/17

The boiling points of methane, ethane, propane and butane are given. Which statement explains the increase in boiling point from methane to butane?

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/F/M/17

Two moles of compound P were placed in a sealed container. The container was heated and P was partially decomposed to produce Q and R only. A dynamic equilibrium between P, Q and R was established. At equilibrium x moles of R were present and the total n

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/F/M/17

Compounds J and K each contain 40% carbon by mass. What could J and K be?

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/F/M/17

Which ion has the same electronic configuration as Cl–?

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/F/M/17

2,2,4-trimethylpentanal is used in the manufacture of adhesives. Which reagents would 2,2,4-trimethylpentanal react with?

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/M/J/17

An organic compound, X, has the following skeletal formula. Which statements about X are correct?

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/M/J/17

The diagram shows the monomer used to make polyvinyl chloride, PVC. Assuming that one particular molecule of the polymer forms from n molecules of the monomer (where n is many thousands), which statements are correct?

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/M/J/17

Which compounds contain a chiral centre?

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/M/J/17

Acid rain continues to be a problem. Which statements about acid rain are correct?

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/M/J/17

Which chlorides, when added to water, can produce a solution with a pH of less than 5?

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/M/J/17

The rate of chemical reactions can be increased by the addition of a suitable catalyst. For which reactions can a heterogeneous catalyst be used?

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/M/J/17

Which statements about endothermic reactions are correct?

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/M/J/17

Which allotropes of carbon have a giant molecular structure?

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/M/J/17

An isolated gaseous atom of element X has paired electrons in at least one of its 3d orbitals and has a filled 4s subshell. What could be the identity of element X?

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/M/J/17

Which compound, when hydrolysed, gives propanoic acid and propan-2-ol?

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/M/J/17

Which compound is chiral and reacts with Na2CO3 to give CO2?

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/M/J/17

A carboxylic acid, P, has no possible chain isomers. It reacts with an alcohol, Q, that has only one positional isomer. What could be the ester formed from a reaction between P and Q?

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/M/J/17

H 2NNHC6H3(NO2)2 is the structural formula of 2,4-DNPH. Many, but not all, organic reactions need to be heated before reaction occurs. Which reaction occurs at a good rate at room temperature (20 °C)?

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/M/J/17

2-bromo-2-methylpropane undergoes nucleophilic substitution when heated under reflux with an aqueous solution of sodium hydroxide. Which row is correct?

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/M/J/17

Compound X is a single, pure, optical isomer. X is heated with an excess of concentrated H2SO4. Only one organic product is formed. What could X be?

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/M/J/17

A sample of 2.76 g of ethanol was mixed with an excess of aqueous acidified potassium dichromate(VI). The reaction mixture was then boiled under reflux for one hour. The required organic product was then collected by distillation. The yield of product

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/M/J/17

Aqueous sodium hydroxide reacts with 1-bromopropane to give propan-1-ol. What should be included in a diagram of the first step in the mechanism?

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/M/J/17

Which equation represents the initiation step of the substitution reaction between methane and chlorine?

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/M/J/17

Geraniol and linalool are compounds found in some flower fragrances. Which statement is correct?

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/M/J/17

A carbonyl compound X will react with HCN in the presence of NaCN to make a compound with Mr 85. Compound X does not react with Fehling’s reagent. What is X?

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/M/J/17

A chemist took 2.00 dm^3 of nitrogen gas, measured under room conditions, and reacted it with a large volume of hydrogen gas to produce ammonia. Only 15.0% of the nitrogen gas reacted to produce ammonia. Which mass of ammonia was formed?

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/M/J/17

The ammonium ion is formed by the following reaction. NH3 + H+ → NH4+ Which statement about the species involved in this reaction is correct?

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/M/J/17

A powder is known to be either a single sodium halide or a mixture of two sodium halides. A sample of the powder was dissolved in water. Aqueous silver nitrate was added, and a pale yellow precipitate was formed. When concentrated aqueous ammonia was

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/M/J/17

Element X reacts with cold, dilute, aqueous sodium hydroxide to form two different chlorine-containing products, Y and Z. What are the oxidation states of chlorine in Y and Z?

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/M/J/17

Calcium oxide is added to water and the resulting mixture is filtered. This filtrate is X. When carbon dioxide is bubbled through filtrate X, a white precipitate is formed. Which equation for this reaction of filtrate X with carbon dioxide is co

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/M/J/17

Trends are seen in the physical and chemical properties of the elements of Group 2 and their compounds. Which property shows a decrease from magnesium to barium?

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/M/J/17

Which graph correctly shows relative electronegativity plotted against relative atomic radius for the elements Na, Mg, Al and Si?

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/M/J/17

The elements magnesium and sulfur each form doubly charged ions. How do the atomic radii and ionic radii of these elements compare?

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/M/J/17

The Boltzmann distribution for the hydrogenation of an alkene at a particular temperature in the absence of a catalyst is shown. Which row correctly describes the effects of adding nickel to the reaction vessel?

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/M/J/17

A reaction involved in the Contact process is shown. 2SO2(g) + O2(g) 2SO3(g) ∆H o = –197 kJ mol–1 The reaction is investigated at 200 kPa and 700 K and the value of the equilibrium constant, Kp, is found to be Y. The reaction is then investigat

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/M/J/17

Hydrogen and carbon dioxide gases are mixed at 800 K. A reversible reaction takes place. H2(g) + CO2(g) H2O(g) + CO(g) At equilibrium, the partial pressures of H2 and CO2 are both 10.0 kPa. Kp is 0.288 at 800 K. What is the partial pressure

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/M/J/17

A reaction sequence is shown. In each stage of this sequence the sulfur is oxidised, reduced or neither oxidised nor reduced. Which row is correct?

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/M/J/17

In the high temperatures of car engines, nitrogen reacts with oxygen to give nitrogen monoxide. This reaction has activation energy Ea. Which reaction pathway diagram could correctly represent this reaction?

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/M/J/17

Which reaction involves a decrease in the bond angle at a carbon atom?

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/M/J/17

At a temperature of 2500 K and a pressure of 1.00 × 10^–4 Pa a sample of 0.321 g of sulfur vapour has a volume of 2.08 × 10^6 m^3. What is the molecular formula of sulfur under these conditions?

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/M/J/17

Which organic compound has the highest boiling point?

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/M/J/17

In some fireworks there is a reaction between powdered aluminium and powdered barium nitrate. Heat is evolved, an unreactive gas is produced, and all nitrogen atoms are reduced. What is the equation for this reaction?

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/M/J/17

Which would contain 9.03 × 10^23 oxygen atoms?

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/M/J/17

In which species are the numbers of protons, neutrons and electrons all different?

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/M/J/17

Which statements about the formation of a carboxylic acid are correct?

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/F/M/16

The compound shown is produced when sugar burns. Which reagents would give a positive result with this compound?

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/F/M/16

1-bromopropane reacts with NaOH in different ways depending on the solvent used. Which statements about this reaction are correct?

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/F/M/16

A species of termite produces a chemical defence secretion which contains the molecule shown. To help determine the structure of this compound, it is treated with hot, concentrated, acidified manganate(VII) ions. Which compounds are produced in this re

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/F/M/16

Oxides of both sulfur and nitrogen are present in the atmosphere. Which statements are correct?

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/F/M/16

Equal masses of barium carbonate and magnesium carbonate powders are mixed together. The mixture is then heated using a Bunsen burner flame until there is no further change. A gas is given off. Which statements are correct?

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/F/M/16

Methanol, CH3OH, can be produced industrially by reacting CO with H2. CO(g) + 2H2(g) CH3OH(g) ∆H = –91 kJ mol–1 The process can be carried out at 4 × 103 kPa and 1150 K. Which statements about this reaction are correct?

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/F/M/16

X is an element that has ● its outer electrons in the 4th principal quantum shell, ● a higher 1st ionisation energy than calcium. What could be the identity of X?

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/F/M/16

A cathedral in New Zealand has been constructed from cardboard. Cardboard contains polymer molecules. Part of one such polymer molecule is shown below. Which statements about this polymer are correct?

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/F/M/16

Photochromic lenses in spectacles darken in sunlight because silver crystals are produced by the reaction shown. Ag+ + Cl – → Ag + Cl Which statements are correct for this reaction?

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/F/M/16

Some vegetable oils contain ‘trans fats’ that are associated with undesirable increases in the amount of cholesterol in the blood. In these oils the word ‘trans’ describes, in the usual way, the arrangement of groups at a C=C double bond. In the diagra

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/F/M/16

How many of the compounds shown will react with aqueous sodium hydroxide to form the sodium salt of a carboxylic acid?

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/F/M/16

Compound X is heated with a mild oxidising agent. One of the products of the reaction will react with hydrogen cyanide, forming 2-hydroxybutanenitrile. What is compound X?

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/F/M/16

Which row correctly describes the reactivity of aldehydes and ketones?

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/F/M/16

Ethane-1,2-diol, HOCH2CH2OH, reacts with an excess of ethanoic acid, CH3CO2H, in the presence of an acid catalyst. A compound is formed with the molecular formula C6H10O4. What is the structure of this compound?

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/F/M/16

Which compound can be oxidised by acidified potassium manganate(VII) to give 3-methylpentan-2-one?

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/F/M/16

Which statement about stereoisomers is correct?

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/F/M/16

The equation shows a reaction that occurs between carbon monoxide and nitrogen monoxide in a catalytic converter. 2CO(g) + 2NO(g) → 2CO2(g) + N2(g) Which statement is correct?

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/F/M/16

The reaction CH3CH2CH2CH2Br + OH– → CH3CH2CH2CH2OH + Br– proceeds via an SN2 mechanism. The reaction (CH3)3CBr + OH– → (CH3)3COH + Br– proceeds via an SN1 mechanism. Which statement about these two reactions is correct?

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/F/M/16

The compound rotundone is responsible for the peppery smell of pepper and is also found in some red wines. How many hydrogen atoms are in one molecule of rotundone?

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/F/M/16

Limonene is found in lemon and orange oils. What will be the major product when limonene is reacted with an excess of dry hydrogen chloride?

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/F/M/16

Water and ammonia take part in a reaction that produces the ammonium ion. Which statement about this reaction is correct?

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/F/M/16

Chlorine and bromine have different volatilities. Which row identifies the more volatile of the two elements, and gives the correct explanation?

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/F/M/16

When heated, magnesium nitrate decomposes. Which equation for the thermal decomposition of magnesium nitrate is correct?

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/F/M/16

J is a salt of one of the halogens chlorine, bromine, iodine or astatine. The reaction scheme shows a series of reactions using a solution of J as the starting reagent. What could J be?

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/F/M/16

When chlorine reacts with hot aqueous sodium hydroxide, two chlorine-containing ions are formed. One of these is the chloride ion, Cl –. What is the other ion?

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/F/M/16

Elements Y and Z are both in Period 3. When the chloride of Y is added to water, it reacts and a solution of pH 2 is produced. When the chloride of Z is added to water, it dissolves and a solution of pH 7 is produced. Which statement explains the

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/O/N/16

Which element shows the greatest tendency to form covalent compounds?

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/O/N/16

1 The polynomial pxis defined by px=4x3+k+1x2−mx+3k, where k and m are constants. Given thatx+1is a factor of px, express m in terms of k

A Level MATHEMATICS 9709/22/M/J/19

2 (i) Solve the equation4+2x=3−5x.

A Level MATHEMATICS 9709/22/M/J/19

3 Find the exact coordinates of the stationary point of the curve with equation y= 3x lnx

A Level MATHEMATICS 9709/22/M/J/19

4 (a) Find the exact value ofÓ1 20 0 4sin2x+2cos2xdx. Show all necessary working

A Level MATHEMATICS 9709/22/M/J/19

5 (i) Find the quotient and remainder when 2x3+x2−8x is divided by2x+1

A Level MATHEMATICS 9709/22/M/J/19

The diagram shows the curve with parametric equations x=3t−6e−2t, y=4t2e−t, for 0≤t≤2. At the point P on the curve, the y-coordinate is 1. (i) Show that the value of t at the point P satisfies the equation t=1 2 e 1 2 t

A Level MATHEMATICS 9709/22/M/J/19

7 (a) (i) Express 4sin1+4cos1in the form Rsin1+!, where R>0 and 0Å

A Level MATHEMATICS 9709/22/M/J/19

1 Find the coefficient of x in the expansion of@2 x −3xA5.

A Level MATHEMATICS 9709/12/M/J/19

2 Two points A and B have coordinates1, 3and9, −1respectively. The perpendicular bisector of AB intersects the y-axis at the point C. Find the coordinates of C2 Two points A and B have coordinates1, 3and9, −1respectively. The perpendicular bisector of

A Level MATHEMATICS 9709/12/M/J/19

3 A curve is such that dy dx =x3− 4 x2 . The point P2, 9lies on the curve.(i) A point moves on the curve in such a way that the x-coordinate is decreasing at a constant rate of 0.05 units per second. Find the rate of change of the y-coordinate when the p

A Level MATHEMATICS 9709/12/M/J/19

4 Angle x is such that sinx=a+b and cosx=a−b, where a and b are constants. (i) Show that a2+b2 has a constant value for all values of x

A Level MATHEMATICS 9709/12/M/J/19

The diagram shows a semicircle with diameter AB, centre O and radius r. The point C lies on the circumference and angle AOC =1 radians. The perimeter of sector BOC is twice the perimeter of sector AOC. Find the value of1correct to 2 significant figures

A Level MATHEMATICS 9709/12/M/J/19

6 The equation of a curve is y=3cos2x and the equation of a line is 2y+ 3x 0 =5. (i) State the smallest and largest values of y for both the curve and the line for 0≤x≤20

A Level MATHEMATICS 9709/12/M/J/19

7 Functions f and g are defined by f : x →3x−2, x∈>, g : x → 2x+3 x−1 , x∈>, x≠1. (i) Obtain expressions for f−1xand g−1x, stating the value of x for which g−1xis not defined

A Level MATHEMATICS 9709/12/M/J/19

8 The position vectors of points A and B, relative to an origin O, are given by −−→ OA=` 6 −2 −6a and −−→ OB=` 3 k −3a, where k is a constant. (i) Find the value of k for which angle AOB is 90Å.

A Level MATHEMATICS 9709/12/M/J/19

9 The curve C1 has equation y = x2 −4x+7. The curve C2 has equation y2 = 4x+k, where k is a constant. The tangent to C1 at the point where x=3 is also the tangent to C2 at the point P. Find the value of k and the coordinates of P.

A Level MATHEMATICS 9709/12/M/J/19

10 (a) In an arithmetic progression, the sum of the first ten terms is equal to the sum of the next five terms. The first term is a. (i) Show that the common difference of the progression is 1 3 a

A Level MATHEMATICS 9709/12/M/J/19

The diagram shows part of the curve y=4x+1+ 9 4x+1and the minimum point M.(i) Find expressions for dy dx andÓ ydx

A Level MATHEMATICS 9709/12/M/J/19

1 On each day that Tamar goes to work, he wears either a blue suit with probability 0.6 or a grey suit with probability 0.4. If he wears a blue suit then the probability that he wears red socks is 0.2. If he wears a grey suit then the probability that he

A Level MATHEMATICS 9709/62/F/M/19

2 For 40 values of the variable x, it is given that Σx − c2 = 3099.2, where c is a constant. The standard deviation of these values of x is 3.2. (i) Find the value of Σx − c.

A Level MATHEMATICS 9709/62/F/M/19

2 For 40 values of the variable x, it is given that Σx − c2 = 3099.2, where c is a constant. The standard deviation of these values of x is 3.2. (i) Find the value of Σx − c.

A Level MATHEMATICS 9709/62/F/M/19

3 The times taken, in minutes, for trains to travel between Alphaton and Beeton are normally distributed with mean 140 and standard deviation 12. (i) Find the probability that a randomly chosen train will take less than 132 minutes to travel between Alpha

A Level MATHEMATICS 9709/62/F/M/19

4 The random variable X takes the values −1, 1, 2, 3 only. The probability that X takes the value x is kx2, where k is a constant. (i) Draw up the probability distribution table for X, in terms of k, and find the value of k

A Level MATHEMATICS 9709/62/F/M/19

5 The weights, in kg, of the 11 members of the Dolphins swimming team and the 11 members of the Sharks swimming team are shown below. Dolphins 62 75 69 82 63 80 65 65 73 82 72 Sharks 68 84 59 70 71 64 77 80 66 74 72 (i) Draw a back-to-back stem-and-leaf d

A Level MATHEMATICS 9709/62/F/M/19

6 The results of a survey by a large supermarket show that 35% of its customers shop online. (i) Six customers are chosen at random. Find the probability that more than three of them shop online.

A Level MATHEMATICS 9709/62/F/M/19

7 Find the number of different arrangements that can be made of all 9 letters in the word CAMERAMAN in each of the following cases. (i) There are no restrictions

A Level MATHEMATICS 9709/62/F/M/19

A uniform object is made by joining together three solid cubes with edges 3m, 2m and 1m. The object has an axis of symmetry, with the cubes stacked vertically and the cube of edge 2m between the other two cubes (see diagram). (i) Calculate the distance of

A Level MATHEMATICS 9709/52/F/M/19

1 A particle is projected with speed 24ms−1 at an angle of 30Å above the horizontal. Find the speed and direction of motion of the particle at the instant 4s after projection

A Level MATHEMATICS 9709/52/F/M/19

A uniform object is made by joining together three solid cubes with edges 3m, 2m and 1m. The object has an axis of symmetry, with the cubes stacked vertically and the cube of edge 2m between the other two cubes (see diagram). (i) Calculate the distance of

A Level MATHEMATICS 9709/52/F/M/19

3 A small ball is projected from a point O on horizontal ground. At time t s afterprojection thehorizontal and vertically upwards displacements of the ball from O are xm and ym respectively, where x = 4t and y = 6t − 5t2. (i) Find the equation of the traj

A Level MATHEMATICS 9709/52/F/M/19

A particle P of mass 0.3kg is attached to a fixed point A by a light elastic string of natural length 0.8m and modulus of elasticity 16 N. The particle P moves in a horizontal circle which has centre O. It is given that AO is vertical and that angle OAP is

A Level MATHEMATICS 9709/52/F/M/19

5 A particle P of mass 0.3 kg is attached to one end of a light elastic string of natural length 0.6 m and modulus of elasticity 24N. The other end of the string is attached to a fixed point O. The particle P is released from rest at the point 0.4 m vertic

A Level MATHEMATICS 9709/52/F/M/19

Fig.1 shows the cross-section of a solid cylinder through which a cylindrical hole has been drilled to make a uniform prism. The radius of the cylinder is 5r and the radius of the hole is r. The centre of the hole is a distance 2r from the centre of the c

A Level MATHEMATICS 9709/52/F/M/19

7 A particle P is projected horizontally from a point O on a rough horizontal surface. The coefficient of friction between the particle and the surface is 0.2. A horizontal force of magnitude 0.06t N directed away from O acts on P, where t s is the time aft

A Level MATHEMATICS 9709/52/F/M/19

The diagram shows the vertical cross-section PQR of a slide. The part PQ is a straight line of length 8m inclined at angle ! to the horizontal, where sin ! = 0.8. The straight part PQ is tangential to the curved part QR, and R is hm above the level of P.

A Level MATHEMATICS 9709/42/F/M/19

A small ring P of mass 0.03 kg is threaded on a rough vertical rod. A light inextensible string is attached to the ring and is pulled upwards at an angle of 15Å to the horizontal. The tension in the string is 2.5 N (see diagram). The ring is in limiting e

A Level MATHEMATICS 9709/42/F/M/19

2 A particle is projected vertically upwards with speed 30ms−1 from a point on horizontal ground. (i) Show that the maximum height above the ground reached by the particle is 45m

A Level MATHEMATICS 9709/42/F/M/19

Four coplanar forces of magnitudes F N, 5 N, 25N and 15N are acting at a point P in the directions shown in the diagram. Given that the forces are in equilibrium, find the values of F and !

A Level MATHEMATICS 9709/42/F/M/19

4 A car of mass 1500kg is pulling a trailer of mass 300kg along a straight horizontal road at a constant speed of 20ms−1. The system of the car and trailer is modelled as two particles, connected by a light rigid horizontal rod. The power of the car’s eng

A Level MATHEMATICS 9709/42/F/M/19

The velocity of a particle moving in a straight line is vms−1 at time t seconds after leaving a fixed point O. The diagram shows a velocity-time graph which models the motion of the particle from t = 0 to t = 16. The graph consists of five straight line seg

A Level MATHEMATICS 9709/42/F/M/19

6 A particle moves in a straight line. It starts from rest at a fixed point O on the line. Its acceleration at time t s after leaving O is ams−2, where a = 0.4t3 − 4.8t 1 2. (i) Show that, in the subsequent motion, the acceleration of the particle when it

A Level MATHEMATICS 9709/42/F/M/19

1 (i) Show that the equation log10x−4=2−log10 x can be written as a quadratic equation in x

A Level MATHEMATICS 9709/32/F/M/19

2 The sequence of values given by the iterative formula xn+1 = 2x6 n+12xn 3x5 n+8 , with initial value x1 =2, converges to!. (i) Use the formula to calculate ! correct to 4 decimal places. Give the result of each iteration to 6 decimal places.

A Level MATHEMATICS 9709/32/F/M/19

3 (i) Given that sin1+45Å+2cos1+60Å=3cos1, find the exact value of tan1in a form involving surds. You need not simplify your answer.

A Level MATHEMATICS 9709/32/F/M/19

4 Show thatÓ4 1 x−3 2 lnxdx=2−ln4.

A Level MATHEMATICS 9709/32/F/M/19

5 The variables x and y satisfy the relation siny=tanx, where−1 20

A Level MATHEMATICS 9709/32/F/M/19

6 The variables x and y satisfy the differential equation dy dx =ky3e−x, where k is a constant. It is given that y = 1 when x = 0, and that y =e when x = 1. Solve the differential equation, obtaining an expression for y in terms of x

A Level MATHEMATICS 9709/32/F/M/19

7 (a) Showing all working and without using a calculator, solve the equation 1+iz2−4+3iz+5+i=0. Give your answers in the form x+iy, where x and y are real

A Level MATHEMATICS 9709/32/F/M/19

8 Let fx= 12+12x−4x2 2+x3−2x. (i) Express fx in partial fractions.

A Level MATHEMATICS 9709/32/F/M/19

9 Two planes have equations 2x+3y−z=1 and x−2y+z=3. (i) Find the acute angle between the planes

A Level MATHEMATICS 9709/32/F/M/19

The diagram shows the curve y=sin3xcosx for 0≤x≤ 1 20, and its maximum point M. (i) Using the substitution u=cosx, find by integration the exact area of the shaded region bounded by the curve and the x-axis.

A Level MATHEMATICS 9709/32/F/M/19

1 Solve the equation sec21+tan21=5tan1+4 for 0Å<1<180Å. Show all necessary working

A Level MATHEMATICS 9709/22/F/M/19

2 Given that x satisfies the equation2x+3=2x−1, find the value of

A Level MATHEMATICS 9709/22/F/M/19

4 (i) Find the quotient when 4x3+8x2+11x+9 is divided by2x+1, and show that the remainder

A Level MATHEMATICS 9709/22/F/M/19

The variables x and y satisfy the equation y=Aepx+p, where A and p are constants. The graph of lny against x is a straight line passing through the points1, 2.835and6, 6.585, as shown in the diagram. Find the values of A and p.

A Level MATHEMATICS 9709/22/F/M/19

5 The equation of a curve is y= e2x 4x+1 and the point P on the curve has y-coordinate 10. (i) Show that the x-coordinate of P satisfies the equation x=1

A Level MATHEMATICS 9709/22/F/M/19

6 (a) Show thatÔ4 1 @2 x + 2 2x+1Adx=ln48

A Level MATHEMATICS 9709/22/F/M/19

7 The parametric equations of a curve are x=2t−sin2t, y=5t+cos2t, for 0≤t≤1 20. At the point P on the curve, the gradient of the curve is 2. (i) Show that the value of the parameter at P satisfies the equation 2sin2t−4cos2t=1

A Level MATHEMATICS 9709/22/F/M/19

1 The coefficient of x3 in the expansion of1 − px5 is −2160. Find the value of the constant p.

A Level MATHEMATICS 9709/12/F/M/19

2 A curve with equation y = fx passes through the points 0, 2 and 3, −1. It is given that f′x= kx2 − 2x, where k is a constant. Find the value of k

A Level MATHEMATICS 9709/12/F/M/19

In the diagram, CXD is a semicircle of radius 7 cm with centre A and diameter CD. The straight line YABX is perpendicular to CD, and the arc CYD is part of a circle with centre B and radius 8cm. Find the total area of the region enclosed by the two arcs.

A Level MATHEMATICS 9709/12/F/M/19

4 A curve has equation y =2x − 1−1 + 2x. (i) Find dy dx and d2y dx2

A Level MATHEMATICS 9709/12/F/M/19

5 Two vectors, u and v, are such that u =`q 2 6a and v =` 8 q − 1 q2 − 7a, where q is a constant. (i) Find the values of q for which u is perpendicular to v

A Level MATHEMATICS 9709/12/F/M/19

6 (i) The first and second terms of a geometric progression are p and 2p respectively, where p is a positive constant. The sum of the first n terms is greater than 1000p. Show that 2n > 1001

A Level MATHEMATICS 9709/12/F/M/19

7 (a) Solve the equation 3sin221 + 8cos21 = 0 for 0Å ≤ 1 ≤ 180Å

A Level MATHEMATICS 9709/12/F/M/19

8 (i) Express x2 − 4x + 7 in the formx + a2 + b.

A Level MATHEMATICS 9709/12/F/M/19

The diagram shows part of the curve with equation y =x3 + x2. The shaded region is bounded by the curve, the x-axis and the line x = 3. (i) Find, showing all necessary working, the volume obtained when the shaded region is rotated through 360Å about the

A Level MATHEMATICS 9709/12/F/M/19

The diagram shows the curve with equation y = 4x 1 2. (i) The straight line with equation y = x + 3 intersects the curve at points A and B. Find the length of AB.

A Level MATHEMATICS 9709/12/F/M/19

1 (i) How many different arrangements are there of the 11 letters in the word MISSISSIPPI

A Level MATHEMATICS 9709/62/O/N/18

2 The following back-to-back stem-and-leaf diagram shows the reaction times in seconds in an experiment involving two groups of people, A and B.

A Level MATHEMATICS 9709/62/O/N/18

3 Jake attempts the crossword puzzle in his daily newspaper every day. The probability that he will complete the puzzle on any given day is 0.75, independently of all other days. (i) Find the probability that he will complete the puzzle at least three tim

A Level MATHEMATICS 9709/62/O/N/18

4 (i) Find the number of different ways that 5 boys and 6 girls can stand in a row if all the boys stand together and all the girls stand together.

A Level MATHEMATICS 9709/62/O/N/18

5 The Quivers Archery club has 12 Junior members and 20 Senior members. For the Junior members, the mean age is 15.5 years and the standard deviation of the ages is 1.2 years. The ages of the Senior members are summarised by Σy = 910 and Σy2 = 42850, wher

A Level MATHEMATICS 9709/62/O/N/18

6 A fair red spinner has 4 sides, numbered 1, 2, 3, 4. A fair blue spinner has 3 sides, numbered 1, 2, 3. When a spinner is spun, the score is the number on the side on which it lands. The spinners are spun at the same time. The random variable X denotes

A Level MATHEMATICS 9709/62/O/N/18

7 (a) The time, X hours, for which students use a games machine in any given day has a normal distribution with mean 3.24 hours and standard deviation 0.96 hours. (i) On how many days of the year (365 days) would you expect a randomly chosen student to us

A Level MATHEMATICS 9709/62/O/N/18

2 A uniform solid object is made by attaching a cone to a cylinder so that the circumferences of the base of the cone and a plane face of the cylinder coincide. The cone and the cylinder each have radius 0.3m and height 0.4 m. (i) Calculate the distance o

A Level MATHEMATICS 9709/52/O/N/18

1 A small ball B is projected with speed 38ms−1 at an angle of 30° to the horizontal from a point on horizontal ground. Find the speed of B when the path of B makes an angle of 20° above the horizontal.

A Level MATHEMATICS 9709/52/O/N/18

3 A particle P of mass 0.4 kg is projected horizontally along a smooth horizontal plane from a point O. After projection the velocity of P is vms−1 and its displacement from O is x m. A force of magnitude 8xN directed away from O acts on P and a force of

A Level MATHEMATICS 9709/52/O/N/18

4 A small object is projected horizontally with speed V ms−1 from a point O above horizontal ground. At time t s after projection, the horizontal and vertically upwards displacements of the object from O are xm and ym respectively. (i) Express x and y in

A Level MATHEMATICS 9709/52/O/N/18

5 A particle P of mass 0.7 kg is attached to a fixed point O by a light elastic string of natural length 0.6m and modulus of elasticity 15 N. The particle P is projected vertically downwards from the point A, 0.8 m vertically below O. The initial speed of

A Level MATHEMATICS 9709/52/O/N/18

The diagram shows a uniform lamina ABCDEFGH. The lamina consists of a quarter-circle OAB of radius r m, a rectangle DEFG and two isosceles right-angled triangles COD and GOH. The rectangle has DG = EF = r m and DE = FG = xm. (i) Given that the centre of m

A Level MATHEMATICS 9709/52/O/N/18

A rough horizontal rod AB of length 0.45m rotates with constant angular velocity 6rads−1 about a vertical axis through A. A small ring R of mass 0.2kg can slide on the rod. A particle P of mass 0.1kg is attached to the mid-point of a light inextensible st

A Level MATHEMATICS 9709/52/O/N/18

A smooth ring R of mass m kg is threaded on a light inextensible string ARB. The ends of the string are attached to fixed points A and B with A vertically above B. The string is taut and angle ARB = 90Å. The angle between the part AR of the string and the

A Level MATHEMATICS 9709/42/O/N/18

2 A block of mass 5kg is being pulled by a rope up a rough plane inclined at 6Å to the horizontal. The rope is parallel to a line of greatest slope of the plane and the block is moving at constant speed. The coefficient of friction between the block and the

A Level MATHEMATICS 9709/42/O/N/18

The velocity of a particle moving in a straight line is vms−1 at time t seconds. The diagram shows a velocity-time graph which models the motion of the particle from t = 0 to t = T. The graph consists of four straight line segments. The particle reaches i

A Level MATHEMATICS 9709/42/O/N/18

Two particles P and Q, of masses 0.4kg and 0.7 kg respectively, are attached to the ends of a light inextensible string. The string passes over a fixed smooth pulley which is attached to the edge of a rough plane. The coefficient of friction between P and th

A Level MATHEMATICS 9709/42/O/N/18

5 A particle moves in a straight line starting from a point O with initial velocity 1ms−1. The acceleration of the particle at time t s after leaving O is ams−2, where a = 1.2t 1 2 − 0.6t. (i) At time T s after leaving O the particle reaches its maximum v

A Level MATHEMATICS 9709/42/O/N/18

6 A car of mass 1200kg is driving along a straight horizontal road at a constant speed of 15ms−1. There is a constant resistance to motion of 350 N. (i) Find the power of the car’s engine.

A Level MATHEMATICS 9709/42/O/N/18

7 A particle of mass 0.3 kg is released from rest above a tank containing water. The particle falls vertically, taking 0.8 s to reach the water surface. There is no instantaneous change of speed when the particle enters the water. The depth of water in th

A Level MATHEMATICS 9709/42/O/N/18

1 Solve the inequality 32x−1>x+4.

A Level MATHEMATICS 9709/32/O/N/18

2 Showing all necessary working, solve the equation sin1−30Å+cos1=2sin1, for 0Å<1<180Å.[4

A Level MATHEMATICS 9709/32/O/N/18

3 (i) FindÔ lnx x3 dx.

A Level MATHEMATICS 9709/32/O/N/18

4 Showing all necessary working, solve the equation ex+e−x ex+1 =4, giving your answer correct to 3 decimal places.

A Level MATHEMATICS 9709/32/O/N/18

5 The equation of a curve is y=xln8−x. The gradient of the curve is equal to 1 at only one point, when x=a. (i) Show that a satisfies the equation x=8− 8 ln8−x

A Level MATHEMATICS 9709/32/O/N/18

6 A certain curve is such that its gradient at a general point with coordinates x, y is proportional to y2 x . The curve passes through the points with coordinates 1, 1 and e, 2. By setting up and solving a differential equation, find the equation of the

A Level MATHEMATICS 9709/32/O/N/18

7 A curve has equation y= 3cosx 2+sinx, for−1 20≤x≤1 20. (i) Find the exact coordinates of the stationary point of the curve

A Level MATHEMATICS 9709/32/O/N/18

8 Let fx= 7x2−15x+8 1−2x2−x2 . (i) Express fx in partial fractions.

A Level MATHEMATICS 9709/32/O/N/18

9 (a) (i) Without using a calculator, express the complex number 2+6i 1−2i in the form x+iy, where xand y are real.

A Level MATHEMATICS 9709/32/O/N/18

10 The line l has equation r=5i−3j−k+,i−2j+k. The plane p has equation r−i−2j.3i+j+k=0. The line l intersects the plane p at the point A. (i) Find the position vector of A.

A Level MATHEMATICS 9709/32/O/N/18

1 Solve the inequality 3x−5<2x.

A Level MATHEMATICS 9709/22/O/N/18

2 Given that 9x+3x=240, find the value of 3x and hence, using logarithms, find the value of x correct to 4 significant figures.

A Level MATHEMATICS 9709/22/O/N/18

The diagram shows the curve with equation y=5sin2x−3tan2x for values of x such that 0≤x< 1 40. Find the x-coordinate of the stationary point M, giving youranswer correct to 3 significant figures.

A Level MATHEMATICS 9709/22/O/N/18

5 The curve with equation y=5e2x−8x2−20 crosses the x-axis at only one point. This point has coordinates p, 0. (i) Show that p satisfies the equation x=1

A Level MATHEMATICS 9709/22/O/N/18

4 Find the gradient of the curve 4x+3ye2x+y2=10 at the point 0, 2.

A Level MATHEMATICS 9709/22/O/N/18

6 (a) Show thatÔ6 1 12 3x+2 dx=ln256.

A Level MATHEMATICS 9709/22/O/N/18

7 (i) Use the factor theorem to show that 2x+3 is a factor of 8x3+4x2−10x+3

A Level MATHEMATICS 9709/22/O/N/18

1 Find the coefficient of 1 x2 in the expansion of@3x+ 2 3x2A7

A Level MATHEMATICS 9709/12/O/N/18

2 Showing all necessary working, findÔ4 1 @x+ 2 xAdx.

A Level MATHEMATICS 9709/12/O/N/18

The diagram shows part of the curve y=x9−x2and the line y=5x, intersecting at the origin O and the point R. Point P lies on the line y=5x between O and R and the x-coordinate of P is t. Point Q lies on the curve and PQ is parallel to the y-axis. (i) Expr

A Level MATHEMATICS 9709/12/O/N/18

4 Functions f and g are defined by f : x →2−3cosx for 0≤x≤20, g : x →1 2 x for 0≤x≤20. (i) Solve the equation fgx=1.

A Level MATHEMATICS 9709/12/O/N/18

5 The first three terms of an arithmetic progression are 4, x and y respectively. The first three terms of a geometric progression are x, y and 18 respectively. It is given that both x and y are positive. (i) Find the value of x and the value of y.

A Level MATHEMATICS 9709/12/O/N/18

The diagram shows a triangle ABC in which BC=20 cm and angle ABC=90Å. The perpendicular from B to AC meets AC at D and AD=9 cm. Angle BCA=1Å. (i) By expressing the length of BD in terms of1in each of the triangles ABD and DBC, show that 20sin21=9cos1.

A Level MATHEMATICS 9709/12/O/N/18

The diagram shows a solid cylinder standing on a horizontal circular base with centre O and radius 4 units. Points A, B and C lie on the circumference of the base such that AB is a diameter and angle BOC=90Å. Points P, Q and R lie on the upper surface of

A Level MATHEMATICS 9709/12/O/N/18

The diagram shows an isosceles triangle ACB in which AB=BC=8 cm and AC=12 cm. The arc XC is part of a circle with centre A and radius 12cm, and the arc YC is part of a circle with centre B and radius 8 cm. The points A, B, X and Y lie on a straight line.

A Level MATHEMATICS 9709/12/O/N/18

9 The function f is defined by f : x →2x2−12x+7 for x∈>. (i) Express 2x2−12x+7 in the form 2x+a2+b, where a and b are constants

A Level MATHEMATICS 9709/12/O/N/18

10 The equation of a curve is y=2x+12 x and the equation of a line is y+x=k, where k is a constant. (i) Find the set of values of k for which the line does not meet the curve

A Level MATHEMATICS 9709/12/O/N/18

The diagram shows part of the curve y=34x+1−2x. The curve crosses the y-axis at A and the stationary point on the curve is M. (i) Obtain expressions for dy dx andÓydx.

A Level MATHEMATICS 9709/12/O/N/18

1 Each of a group of 10 boys estimates the length of a piece of string. The estimates, in centimetres, are as follows. 37 40 45 38 36 38 42 38 40 39 (i) Find the mode

A Level MATHEMATICS 9709/62/M/J/18

2 In a group of students, 3 4 are male. The proportion of male students who like their curry hot is 3 5 and the proportion of female students who like their curry hot is 4 5 . One student is chosen at random. (i) Find the probability that the student chos

A Level MATHEMATICS 9709/62/M/J/18

3 (i) The volume of soup in Super Soup cartons has a normal distribution with mean - millilitres and standard deviation 9 millilitres. Tests have shown that 10% of cartons contain less than 440 millilitres of soup. Find the value of -.

A Level MATHEMATICS 9709/62/M/J/18

4 Mrs Rupal chooses 3 animals at random from 5 dogs and 2 cats. The random variable X is the number of cats chosen. (i) Draw up the probability distribution table for X.

A Level MATHEMATICS 9709/62/M/J/18

5 The lengths, t minutes, of 242 phone calls made by a family over a period of 1 week are summarised in the frequency table below.

A Level MATHEMATICS 9709/62/M/J/18

6 (a) Find the number of ways in which all 9 letters of the word AUSTRALIA can be arranged in each of the following cases. (i) All the vowels (A, I, U are vowels) are together

A Level MATHEMATICS 9709/62/M/J/18

7 Inacertaincountry, 60%ofmobilephonessoldaremadebyCompany A, 35%aremadebyCompany B and 5% are made by other companies. (i) Find the probability that, out of a random sample of 13 people who buy a mobile phone, fewer than 11 choose a mobile phone made by

A Level MATHEMATICS 9709/62/M/J/18

A small ball B is projected from a point O on horizontal ground towards a point A 12m above the ground. 0.9s after projection B has travelled a horizontal distance of 20m and is vertically below A (see diagram). (i) Find the angle and the speed of project

A Level MATHEMATICS 9709/52/M/J/18

2 One end of a light elastic string is attached to a fixed point O. The other end of the string is attached to a particle P of mass 0.4kg. The string has natural length 0.6m and modulus of elasticity 24N. The particle is released from rest at O. Find the t

A Level MATHEMATICS 9709/52/M/J/18

ABC is an object made from a uniform wire consisting of two straight portions AB and BC, in which AB = a, BC = x and angle ABC = 90Å. When the object is freely suspended from A and in equilibrium, the angle between AB and the horizontal is 1 (see diagram)

A Level MATHEMATICS 9709/52/M/J/18

4 A particle P is projected from a point O on horizontal ground with initial speed 20ms−1 and angle of projection 30°. At the instant t s after projection, the horizontal and vertically upwards displacements of P from O are xm and ym respectively. (i) Exp

A Level MATHEMATICS 9709/52/M/J/18

A uniform object is made by joining a solid cone of height 0.8m and base radius 0.6 m and a cylinder. The cylinder has length 0.4m and radius 0.5m. The cylinder has a cylindrical hole of length 0.4 m and radius xm drilled through it along the axis of symm

A Level MATHEMATICS 9709/52/M/J/18

A particle P of mass 0.2 kg is attached to one end of a light inextensible string of length 0.6m. The other end of the string is attached to a fixed point A. The particle P is also attached to one end of a second light inextensible string of length 0.6 m,

A Level MATHEMATICS 9709/52/M/J/18

7 A particle P of mass 0.2 kg is released from rest at a point O above horizontal ground. At time t s after its release the velocity of P is vms−1 downwards. A vertically downwards force of magnitude 0.6t N acts on P. A vertically upwards force of magnitu

A Level MATHEMATICS 9709/52/M/J/18

1 A man has mass 80 kg. He runs along a horizontal road against a constant resistance force of magnitude P N. The total work done by the man in increasing his speed from 4ms−1 to 5.5ms−1 while running a distance of 60 metres is 1200J. Find the value of P

A Level MATHEMATICS 9709/42/M/J/18

2 A train of mass 240 000kg travels up a slope inclined at an angle of 4Å to the horizontal. There is a constant resistance of magnitude 18000 N acting on the train. At an instant when the speed of the train is 15ms−1 its deceleration is 0.2ms−2. Find the

A Level MATHEMATICS 9709/42/M/J/18

The three coplanar forces shown in the diagram have magnitudes 3 N, 2 N and P N. Given that the three forces are in equilibrium, find the values of 1 and P

A Level MATHEMATICS 9709/42/M/J/18

4 A particle P moves in a straight line ABCD with constant acceleration. The distances AB and BC are 100m and 148m respectively. The particle takes 4s to travel from A to B and also takes 4s to travel from B to C. (i) Show that the acceleration of P is 3m

A Level MATHEMATICS 9709/42/M/J/18

5 A particle of mass 20kg is on a rough plane inclined at an angle of 60Å to the horizontal. Equilibrium is maintained by a force of magnitude P N acting on the particle, in a direction parallel to a line of greatest slope of the plane. The greatest possi

A Level MATHEMATICS 9709/42/M/J/18

6 A particle P moves in a straight line passing through a point O. At time t s, the acceleration, a ms−2, of P is given by a = 6 − 0.24t. The particle comes to instantaneous rest at time t = 20. (i) Find the value of t at which the particle is again at in

A Level MATHEMATICS 9709/42/M/J/18

As shown in the diagram, a particle A of mass 1.6kg lies on a horizontal plane and a particle B of mass 2.4 kg lies on a plane inclined at an angle of 30Å to the horizontal. The particles are connected by a light inextensible string which passes over a sm

A Level MATHEMATICS 9709/42/M/J/18

1 Showing all necessary working, solve the equation 32x−1=2x, giving your answers correct to 3 significant figures

A Level MATHEMATICS 9709/32/M/J/18

2 Showing all necessary working, solve the equation cot1+cot1+45Å=2, for 0Å<1<180Å

A Level MATHEMATICS 9709/32/M/J/18

3 x y O Px, y T N In the diagram, the tangent to a curve at the point P with coordinates x, y meets the x-axis at T. The point N is the foot of the perpendicular from P to the x-axis. The curve is such that, for all values of x, the gradient of the curv

A Level MATHEMATICS 9709/32/M/J/18

(i) Show that 2sinx−sin2x 1−cos2x  sinx 1+cosx

A Level MATHEMATICS 9709/32/M/J/18

5 The equation of a curve is x2x+3y−y3=3. (i) Show that dy dx = x2+2xy y2−x2

A Level MATHEMATICS 9709/32/M/J/18

6 A B C a a 1 rad The diagram shows a triangle ABC in which AB=AC=a and angle BAC=1radians. Semicircles are drawn outside the triangle with AB and AC as diameters. A circular arc with centre A joins B and C. The area of the shaded segment is equal to the

A Level MATHEMATICS 9709/32/M/J/18

7 Throughout this question the use of a calculator is not permitted. The complex numbers−3ï3+i andï3+2i are denoted by u and v respectively. (i) Find, in the form x+iy, where x and y are real and exact, the complex numbers uv and u v .

A Level MATHEMATICS 9709/32/M/J/18

8 x y O M The diagram shows the curve y=x+1e−1 3 x and its maximum point M. (i) Find the x-coordinate of M.

A Level MATHEMATICS 9709/32/M/J/18

9 Let fx= x−4x2 3−x2+x2. (i) Express fx in the form A 3−x+Bx+C 2+x2 .

A Level MATHEMATICS 9709/32/M/J/18

10 Two lines l and m have equations r=2i−j+k+s2i+3j−k and r=i+3j+4k+ti+2j+k respectively. (i) Show that the lines are skew.

A Level MATHEMATICS 9709/32/M/J/18

1 Solve the inequality3x−2<x+5. [4] ...................................................................

A Level MATHEMATICS 9709/22/M/J/18

2 A curve has equation y=3ln2x+9−2ln x. (i) Find the x-coordinate of the stationary point

A Level MATHEMATICS 9709/22/M/J/18

3 (i) Find the quotient when x 4−2x3+8x2−12x+13 is divided by x2+6 and show that the remainder is 1

A Level MATHEMATICS 9709/22/M/J/18

4 (i) Solve the equation 2ln2x−lnx+3=4ln2.

A Level MATHEMATICS 9709/22/M/J/18

5 A curve has equation y 3 sin2x+4y=8. Find the equation of the tangent to the curve at the point where it crosses the y-axis

A Level MATHEMATICS 9709/22/M/J/18

6 It is given thatÓa 01+e1 2 x2 dx =10, where a is a positive constant. (i) Show that a=2lnP15−a 4+e1 2aQ

A Level MATHEMATICS 9709/22/M/J/18

7 (i) Show that 2cosec22x1−cos2xsec2x.

A Level MATHEMATICS 9709/22/M/J/18

1 The coefficient of x2 in the expansion of02 + x 216 +a + x5 is 330. Find the value of the constant a

A Level MATHEMATICS 9709/12/M/J/18

2 The equation of a curve is y = x2 − 6x + k, where k is a constant. (i) Find the set of values of k for which the whole of the curve lies above the x-axis.

A Level MATHEMATICS 9709/12/M/J/18

3 A company producing salt from sea water changed to a new process. The amount of salt obtained each week increased by 2% of the amount obtained in the preceding week. It is given that in the first week after the change the company obtained 8000kg of salt.

A Level MATHEMATICS 9709/12/M/J/18

4 The function f is such that fx= a + bcosx for 0 ≤ x ≤ 20. It is given that f1 3 0= 5 and f0= 11. (i) Find the values of the constants a and b.

A Level MATHEMATICS 9709/12/M/J/18

The diagram shows a three-dimensional shape. The base OAB is a horizontal triangle in which angle AOB is 90Å. The side OBCD is a rectangle and the side OAD lies in a vertical plane. Unit vectors i and j are parallel to OA and OB respectively and the unit

A Level MATHEMATICS 9709/12/M/J/18

The diagram shows points A and B on a circle with centre O and radius r. The tangents to the circle at A and B meet at T. The shaded region is bounded by the minor arc AB and the lines AT and BT. Angle AOB is 21 radians. (i) In the case where the area of

A Level MATHEMATICS 9709/12/M/J/18

8 Points AandBhavecoordinatesh, hand4h + 6, 5hrespectively. Theequation oftheperpendicular bisector of AB is 3x + 2y = k. Find the values of the constants h and k

A Level MATHEMATICS 9709/12/M/J/18

8 Points AandBhavecoordinatesh, hand4h + 6, 5hrespectively. Theequation oftheperpendicular bisector of AB is 3x + 2y = k. Find the values of the constants h and k

A Level MATHEMATICS 9709/12/M/J/18

9 A curve is such that dy dx =4x + 1and2, 5is a point on the curve. (i) Find the equation of the curve.

A Level MATHEMATICS 9709/12/M/J/18

10 (i) Solve the equation 2cosx + 3sinx = 0, for 0Å ≤ x ≤ 360Å

A Level MATHEMATICS 9709/12/M/J/18

11 x y O P Q y = 4 y = x 2 + 6 x The diagram shows part of the curve y = x 2 + 6 x . The line y = 4 intersects the curve at the points P and Q. (i) Show that the tangents to the curve at P and Q meet at a point on the line y = x

A Level MATHEMATICS 9709/12/M/J/18

The graph below shows the variation of the first ionisation energy with proton number for some elements. The letters used are not the usual symbols for the elements. Which statement about the elements is correct?

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/O/N/16

Lithium reacts with nitrogen at room temperature to form solid Li3N. Three vessels of equal volume are connected by taps, A and B, as shown. At the start, A and B are closed, the left-hand vessel is evacuated, the middle vessel has the indicated react

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/O/N/16

Nitrogen reacts with hydrogen to produce ammonia. N2(g) + 3H2(g) 2NH3(g) A mixture of 2.00 mol of nitrogen, 6.00 mol of hydrogen and 2.40 mol of ammonia is allowed to reach equilibrium in a sealed vessel of volume 1 dm3. It was found t

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/O/N/16

In a calorimetric experiment 1.60 g of a fuel are burnt. 45.0% of the energy released is absorbed by 200 g of water. The temperature of the water rises from 18.0 °C to 66.0 °C. What is the total energy released per gram of fuel burnt (to 3 sig

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/O/N/16

In an experiment, a sample of a pure gas is put into a gas syringe at a temperature of 300 K and pressure of 16 kPa. The gas is compressed until the volume occupied by the gas is halved. After compression, the temperature of the gas in the syringe

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/O/N/16

In which hydride is the H–X–H bond angle the smallest?

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/O/N/16

When solid aluminium chloride is heated, Al 2Cl 6 is formed. Which bonding is present in Al 2Cl 6?

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/O/N/16

What is the electronic configuration of an isolated Ni^2+ ion?

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/O/N/16

When copper reacts with a 50% solution of nitric acid, nitrogen monoxide is evolved and a blue solution results. The balanced equation for this reaction is shown. p Cu + q HNO3 → r Cu(NO3)2 + s H2O + t NO What are the values of

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/O/N/16

People are advised to eat less than 6.00 g of salt (sodium chloride) per day for health reasons. Which mass of sodium is present in 6.00 g of sodium chloride?

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/O/N/16

The diagram shows the pathways of a reaction, with and without a catalyst. Which letter represents the overall energy change for the reaction?

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/O/N/16

The molecules of a gas at a constant temperature, T1, have the distribution of molecular energies shown in the diagram. When the temperature is increased to T2, the distribution of molecular energies changes. Which diagram correctly shows this change?

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/O/N/16

Compound X has the molecular formula C3H6O3. Heating X under reflux with acidified K2Cr2O7 forms HO2CCOCO2H. Reacting X with NaBH4 forms HOCH2CH(OH)CH2OH. What is a possible structural formula for X?

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/F/M/16

An unknown organic compound Z reacts with sodium to give a combustible gas as one product. Z does not give a yellow precipitate with alkaline aqueous iodine. What is a possible identity of Z?

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/F/M/16

Chlorine atoms in the upper atmosphere cause the breakdown of ozone. Which statements are correct when referring to these chlorine atoms?

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/F/M/16

Which reagents, when used in an excess, can be used to make sodium lactate, CH3CH(OH)CO2Na, from lactic acid, CH3CH(OH)CO2H?

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/F/M/16

A sample containing 0.40 mol of calcium nitrate was decomposed by heating in a roaring Bunsen burner flame until there was no further decomposition. What are the products of this reaction?

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/F/M/16

In some rice-growing parts of the world, farmers use a combination of paddy fields and a fish farm. Rice paddy fields are flooded for much of the growing cycle and water running off the fields flows through pens where fish are raised. Nitrogen-based ferti

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/F/M/16

A chemist puts a sample of dilute aqueous hydrochloric acid into beaker 1. She adds a sample of zinc and measures the rate of production of hydrogen gas.

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/F/M/16

Which statements about reversible reactions are correct?

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/F/M/16

The diagram illustrates the enthalpy changes of a set of reactions, Which statements are correct?

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/F/M/16

Which molecules have an overall dipole moment?

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/F/M/16

Which row of the table is correct?

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/F/M/16

Which statement about poly(chloroethene) is correct?

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/F/M/16

Which mixture could be used to produce propyl methanoate?

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/F/M/16

The fragrance compounds of perfumes are often dissolved in solvent Y, which has a molecular formula C7H12O4. It is made by reacting propane-1,2-diol with ethanoic acid in the presence of an acid catalyst. What is the structure of solvent Y?

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/F/M/16

Which row correctly shows a primary, a secondary and a tertiary alcohol?

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/F/M/16

Structural isomerism and stereoisomerism should be considered in answering this question. Compound J is reacted with KOH dissolved in ethanol. Three isomeric alkenes with molecular formula C4H8 are formed. What is J?

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/F/M/16

Hydrogen bromide can be added to T to give compound U. Compound U can be hydrolysed to compound V. Four students, W, X, Y and Z, made the following statements. W All the atoms in a molecule of compound T lie in the same plane. X Compound V contains on

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/F/M/16

But-2-ene-1,4-diol is converted in two steps through an intermediate X into oxobutanedioic acid. What could be the reagent for step 1 and what is the intermediate X?

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/F/M/16

A section showing two repeat units of an addition polymer is shown. What is the identity of the monomer that produced this polymer?

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/F/M/16

Geraniol and nerol are compounds found in some flower fragrances. They are isomers of each other. Which type of isomerism is shown here?

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/F/M/16

People who take statin drugs to control their blood cholesterol may also take ‘coenzyme Q10’. The diagram shows a simplified structure of one form of this coenzyme. Which row describes this structure correctly?

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/F/M/16

After black and white photographic film has been developed, unreacted silver bromide is removed by reaction with sodium thiosulfate. AgBr + 2Na2S2O3 → 4Na+ + Br – + [Ag(S2O3)2]^3– What is the function of the thiosulfate ion?

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/F/M/16

River water in a chalky agricultural area contains Ca2+, Mg2+, CO32–, HCO3–, Cl − and NO3– ions. In a water treatment plant, such water is treated by adding a calculated quantity of calcium hydroxide. What will be precipitated from the river water foll

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/F/M/16

Ammonium sulfate, (NH4)2SO4, and ammonium nitrate, NH4NO3, are used as fertilisers. These salts have different percentages by mass of nitrogen. They have the same effect as each other on the pH of neutral soil. Which row is correct?

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/F/M/16

Hydrogen chloride gas and hydrogen iodide gas have different thermal stabilities. The difference is due to a difference in the energies of some of the covalent bonds that are involved in the decomposition. Which row identifies the more stable of the tw

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/F/M/16

Which row of the table is correct?

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/F/M/16

Economic recovery pains

A Level ECONOMICS 9708/42/O/N/17

Chlorine gas is widely used to treat contaminated water. Which species present in water when chlorine gas has been added is responsible for killing bacteria?

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/F/M/16

In many countries there is a concern about the rate of unemployment. (a

A Level ECONOMICS 9708/42/O/N/17

The merit of the economic theory of wage determination is that it clearly shows what the best level of wage

A Level ECONOMICS 9708/42/O/N/17

Whether a country can be classified as developed depends on the value of its GDP and the higher the GD

A Level ECONOMICS 9708/42/O/N/17

For some products there has been an increasing dominance of large firms in the last five years. For exampl

A Level ECONOMICS 9708/42/O/N/17

Analyse how indifference curve theory explains why a consumer will normally buy more of a goo

A Level ECONOMICS 9708/42/O/N/17

A country moved from a point within its production possibility curve to a point on its production possibility curve.

A Level ECONOMICS 9708/42/O/N/17

When dealing with a spillage of metallic sodium it is important that no toxic or flammable products are formed. Which material should be used if there is a spillage of metallic sodium?

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/F/M/16

Consecutive elements X, Y and Z are in Period 3 of the Periodic Table. Element Y has the highest first ionisation energy and the lowest melting point of these three elements. What are the identities of X, Y and Z?

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/F/M/16

In an experiment, 2.00 mol of hydrogen and 3.00 mol of iodine were heated together in a sealed container and allowed to reach equilibrium at a fixed temperature. The container had a fixed volume of 1.00 dm^3. At equilibrium, there were 2.40 mol of iodine

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/F/M/16

Which equation has an enthalpy change of reaction which corresponds to the standard enthalpy change of atomisation of chlorine?

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/F/M/16

An article in a science magazine contains the following statement. ‘It is lighter than a feather, stronger than steel, yet incredibly flexible and more conductive than copper.’ Which form of carbon is being described?

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/F/M/16

Solid carbon dioxide, CO2, is similar to solid iodine, I2, in its structure and properties. Carbon is in Group 14. Silica, SiO2, is a Group 14 compound. Which statement about solid CO2 and solid SiO2 is correct?

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/F/M/16

Show the difference between a movement along, and a shift in, a production possibility curve. Explain

A Level ECONOMICS 9708/22/O/N/17

Japan’s Economic Difficulties Table 1: Japan Consumer Prices Index, June 2013–December 2015

A Level ECONOMICS 9708/22/O/N/17

Describe the four components of the current account of the balance of payments. Explain what might

A Level ECONOMICS 9708/22/O/N/17

Explain how economists use the concept of income elasticity of demand to distinguish between different types of goods. [8] (b) Discuss

A Level ECONOMICS 9708/22/O/N/17

What is the volume of steam produced when 1.00 g of ice is heated to 323 °C at a pressure of 101 kPa?

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/F/M/16

Which series shows molecules in order of increasing bond angle?

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/F/M/16

Nitric oxide, NO, and bromine vapour react together according to the following equation. 2NO(g) + Br2(g) → 2NOBr(g) ΔH o= –23 kJ mol^–1 The reaction has an activation energy of +5.4 kJ mol^–1. What is the correct reaction pathway diagram for t

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/F/M/16

Which species contains the smallest number of electrons?

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/F/M/16

Which ion has both more electrons than protons and more protons than neutrons? [H = 1 1H; D = 2 1 H; O = 16 8O]

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/F/M/16

For the element sulfur, which pair of ionisation energies has the largest difference between them?

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/F/M/16

Which compound contains two different elements with identical oxidation states?

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/F/M/16

Which syntheses will be successful?

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/M/J/16

Propanal reacts with hydrogen cyanide to form 2-hydroxybutanenitrile. A suitable catalyst for this reaction is sodium cyanide. NaCN CH3CH2CHO + HCN CH3CH2CH(OH)CN Which statements about the reaction of propanal with hydrogen cyanide are cor

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/M/J/16

One of the active ingredients in tea-tree oil is terpinen-4-ol. In the diagram of the skeletal formula of terpinen-4-ol, three of the carbon atoms are labelled 1, 2 and 3. Which of the labelled carbon atoms are chiral?

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/M/J/16

The diagram shows a compound used as a flame retardant. Which statements about this structure are correct?

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/M/J/16

Which properties increase in the sequence hydrogen chloride, hydrogen bromide and hydrogen iodide?

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/M/J/16

The first ionisation energies of twenty successive elements in the Periodic Table are represented in the graph. The letters given are not the normal symbols for these elements. Which statements about this graph are correct?

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/M/J/16

The diagram shows four possible aggregate supply curves and an equilibrium point X. A government

A Level ECONOMICS 9708/12/O/N/17

When will a country’s balance of payments current account deficit be reduced? A

A Level ECONOMICS 9708/12/O/N/17

Monetary policy can be used to increase the level of business activity. Which

A Level ECONOMICS 9708/12/O/N/17

In 2014, Poland was the world’s largest exporter of apples. 55% of the crop went to Russia. Then Russia

A Level ECONOMICS 9708/12/O/N/17

The table shows the ability of two countries to produce two commodities when they use all of their resources

A Level ECONOMICS 9708/12/O/N/17

Country X forms a customs union with country Y.

A Level ECONOMICS 9708/12/O/N/17

Which formula is used to calculate a country’s terms of trade

A Level ECONOMICS 9708/12/O/N/17

In the UK in July 2014, £1 = US $1.71

A Level ECONOMICS 9708/12/O/N/17

Assume the Chinese monetary authorities are committed to maintaining the exchange rate of China’s

A Level ECONOMICS 9708/12/O/N/17

What does the current account of the balance of payments include?

A Level ECONOMICS 9708/12/O/N/17

An ethanol burner can be used to heat water. If appropriate measurements are taken, a value for the enthalpy of combustion of ethanol can be calculated. The equation heat transferred = –mc∆T is used as part of the calculation. Which symbols are c

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/M/J/16

In this question, all gases can be assumed to behave ideally. A chemist heats a mixture of nitrogen and oxygen gases in a sealed container at a constant temperature until the mixture reaches a dynamic equilibrium containing N2(g), O2(g) and NO(g). N

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/M/J/16

In an experiment, 10 cm^3 of an organic compound, J, in the gaseous state was sparked with an excess of oxygen. 20 cm^3 of carbon dioxide and 5 cm^3 of nitrogen were obtained among the products. All gas volumes were measured at the same temperature an

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/M/J/16

Three elements, X, Y and Z, have electronic configurations as shown. Which formulae represent compounds that conduct electricity in the liquid state?

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/M/J/16

The table shows the retail prices index for four countries for years 2 and 3.

A Level ECONOMICS 9708/12/O/N/17

In its recent budget a government reduced total expenditure while increasing the amount spent on

A Level ECONOMICS 9708/12/O/N/17

Health services in an economy are provided by private clinics that charge high fees. The government

A Level ECONOMICS 9708/12/O/N/17

The diagrams show UK Government total spending and welfare spending in £ billions between 2005

A Level ECONOMICS 9708/12/O/N/17

The diagram shows the market for heating oil.

A Level ECONOMICS 9708/12/O/N/17

The diagram shows the demand and supply curves of a commodity before and after a specific tax is removed

A Level ECONOMICS 9708/12/O/N/17

After a series of poor harvests, a government imposes an effective maximum price on cereals

A Level ECONOMICS 9708/12/O/N/17

In the diagram, S1 is the original supply curve and D is the original demand curve

A Level ECONOMICS 9708/12/O/N/17

What is meant by consumer surplus?

A Level ECONOMICS 9708/12/O/N/17

Compound X, C4H8O2, has an unbranched carbon chain. An aqueous solution of X has an approximate pH of 3. Compound Y, C3H8O, is a secondary alcohol. X and Y are reacted together in the presence of a little concentrated sulfuric acid to form Z as the

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/M/J/16

How many isomeric esters, including structural isomers and stereoisomers, can be made with the molecular formula C5H10O2, if methanoic acid is one of the two reactants used?

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/M/J/16

How many of the following compounds produce a carboxylic acid on heating under reflux with an excess of hot acidified K2Cr2O7?

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/M/J/16

In which reaction is the organic compound oxidised?

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/M/J/16

Which organic compound would not give either a yellow precipitate when treated with alkaline aqueous iodine or an orange precipitate when treated with 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine reagent?

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/M/J/16

Malic acid is found in apples. Which reagent will react with only one of the – OH groups in the malic acid molecule?

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/M/J/16

1-chloro-1-methylcyclohexane is hydrolysed by heating with NaOH(aq). The reaction pathway is shown. One carbon atom in 1-chloro-1-methylcyclohexane is bonded to three other carbon atoms. What is the charge on this carbon atom at point Z?

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/M/J/16

A cycloalkene with the molecular formula C7H12 was oxidised by hot concentrated acidified MnO4–. The only organic product was 2-methylhexane-1,6-dioic acid. What is the identity of the cycloalkene?

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/M/J/16

Oct-1-ene, CH3(CH2)5CH=CH2, can be thermally cracked. Which combination of compounds W, X, Y and Z can be obtained by thermally cracking oct-1-ene?

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/M/J/16

Synthetic resins can be made by polymerisation of a variety of monomers including prop-2-en-1-ol, CH2=CHCH2OH. Which structure represents the repeat unit in poly(prop-2-en-1-ol)?

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/M/J/16

Chlorofluorocarbons damage the ozone layer by undergoing reactions with a free radical mechanism. The first stage of this is initiation. Which equation is most likely to be the initiation stage when chlorofluoromethane is involved in such a reaction?

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/M/J/16

Fluorine and iodine are Group 17 elements. Their melting points are different due to differing strengths of van der Waals’ forces between molecules. Which row is correct?

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/M/J/16

An excess of chlorine gas, Cl 2, is passed through 60 cm^3 of cold aqueous 0.1 mol dm^–3 sodium hydroxide. In a separate experiment an excess of chlorine gas is passed through 60 cm^3 of hot aqueous 0.1 mol dm^–3 sodium hydroxide until no furth

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/M/J/16

Nitrogen(II) oxide, NO, nitrogen(IV) oxide, NO2, carbon monoxide, CO, and unburnt hydrocarbons are present in the exhaust gases of internal combustion engines. When catalytic converters are used to remove these compounds from the exhaust gases, redox reac

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/M/J/16

A solid, T, was placed in an excess of the liquid U. A colourless gas was given off and a white precipitate was seen. The precipitate was not T. What could be the identities of T and U?

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/M/J/16

Ammonia gas, NH3, and hydrogen sulfide gas, H2S, react together to form the salt ammonium sulfide, (NH4)2S. Ammonium sulfide dissolves in water to produce an orange alkaline solution. (NH4)2S(aq) NH3(aq) + NH4SH(aq) The addition of NaOH(aq) to

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/M/J/16

A 0.005 mol sample of anhydrous calcium carbonate was completely thermally decomposed to give 100 cm3 of gas measured at a certain temperature and pressure. In a separate experiment carried out at the same temperature and pressure, a 0.005 mol sam

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/M/J/16

Solid aluminium chloride sublimes at 178 oC. Which structure best represents the species in the vapour at this temperature?

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/M/J/16

Sodium and sulfur react together to form sodium sulfide, Na2S. How do the atomic radius and ionic radius of sodium compare with those of sulfur?

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/M/J/16

Which stage in the free radical substitution of ethane by chlorine has the lowest activation energy?

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/M/J/16

When solid ammonium chloride dissociates at a certain temperature in a 0.500 dm3 container, ammonia and hydrogen chloride are formed. NH4Cl (s) NH3(g) + HCl (g) The initial amount of ammonium chloride was 1.00 mol, and when the system

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/M/J/16

In the treatment of domestic water supplies, chlorine is added to the water to form HCl O. Cl 2(aq) + H2O(I) → H+(aq) + Cl –(aq) + HCl O(aq) The HCl O reacts further to give Cl O– ions. HCl O(aq) + H2O(I) H3O+(aq) + C

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/M/J/16

The equation for the complete combustion of propan-1-ol is shown. CH3CH2CH2OH(l) + 4 2 1 O2(g) → 3CO2(g) + 4H2O(l) Standard enthalpy changes of formation are given. What is the standard enthalpy change of combustion of propan-1-ol, in kJ mo

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/M/J/16

0.10 g of the volatile liquid X formed 0.025 dm^3 of vapour at 100 °C and atmospheric pressure. 1 mol of vapour occupies 22.4 dm^3 at 0 °C and atmospheric pressure. What is the relative molecular mass of X?

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/M/J/16

Consumer X is the largest of five consumers and buys 50% of sales.

A Level ECONOMICS 9708/12/O/N/17

Prices of gold, silver and copper fell considerably in 2011 and again in 2015. The fall in 2011 was said

A Level ECONOMICS 9708/12/O/N/17

Over a four year period, as the price of new houses increases, the price elasticity of supply for new

A Level ECONOMICS 9708/12/O/N/17

In the diagram D1D1 is a straight line demand curve and D2D2 is a rectangular hyperbola curve.

A Level ECONOMICS 9708/12/O/N/17

In which situation is the demand for a product said to be price elastic? A

A Level ECONOMICS 9708/12/O/N/17

What would not affect the position of the demand curve for wigs? A

A Level ECONOMICS 9708/12/O/N/17

What is most likely to severely affect the ability of money to act as a medium of exchange? A

A Level ECONOMICS 9708/12/O/N/17

Economy X uses its resources in the labour-intensive production of wheat and wooden furniture as

A Level ECONOMICS 9708/12/O/N/17

A government decides to subsidise farms producing milk in its country. Which

A Level ECONOMICS 9708/12/O/N/17

To overcome the problem of scarcity, countries with few natural resources need to concentrate on

A Level ECONOMICS 9708/12/O/N/17

Argon is a gas used to fill electric light bulbs. Under which conditions of pressure and temperature will argon behave most like an ideal gas?

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/M/J/16

Each of the four species in this question are isolated and gaseous. Which species is not planar?

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/M/J/16

In China, the concentration of blood glucose, C6H12O6, is measured in mmol / l . In Pakistan, the concentration of blood glucose is measured in mg / dl . The unit l is a litre (1 dm^3). The unit dl is a decilitre (0.1 dm^3). A bloo

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/M/J/16

Elements X and Y are in the same group of the Periodic Table. The table shows the first six ionisation energies of X and Y in kJ mol^–1. What could be the identities of X and Y?

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/M/J/16

Four electronic configurations are shown below. Three of these configurations belong to atoms of the elements chlorine, sodium and vanadium. Which electronic configuration belongs to an atom of another element?

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/M/J/16

The diagram shows the Boltzmann distribution of energies in 1 mole of a gas. The gas can take part in a reaction with an activation energy, Ea. Which statement correctly describes the effect of an increase in temperature?

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/M/J/16

A society that says it cares about efficiency needs to abandon the notion of a market system to allocate

A Level ECONOMICS 9708/42/F/M/17

Consider how significant the level of income is in determining people’s demand for money, according

A Level ECONOMICS 9708/42/F/M/17

How might the employment composition and age structure of a developing country differ from those

A Level ECONOMICS 9708/42/F/M/17

A politician remarked that the absence of trades unions would necessarily lead to an improvement in

A Level ECONOMICS 9708/42/F/M/17

Some firms have power over their market. Explain what this means and consider why this power Some firms have power over their market. Explain what this means and consider why this power

A Level ECONOMICS 9708/42/F/M/17

Explain what is meant in economic theory by consumer equilibrium.

A Level ECONOMICS 9708/42/F/M/17

Finance Ministers and Economic Power

A Level ECONOMICS 9708/42/F/M/17

A government currently has a balanced budget. It is considering the possible variations in tax revenue

A Level ECONOMICS 9708/32/F/M/17

What would encourage industrial expansion in a region of high unemployment?

A Level ECONOMICS 9708/32/F/M/17

Which cause of economic growth would involve the least cost for present and future generations of

A Level ECONOMICS 9708/32/F/M/17

A country’s real national income per head increases. What could explain why this might be accompanied by a fall in

A Level ECONOMICS 9708/32/F/M/17

A director becomes redundant as the result of a company merger. His salary was $80 000. He is entitled

A Level ECONOMICS 9708/32/F/M/17

Which combination of factors is most likely to result in economic growth? A

A Level ECONOMICS 9708/32/F/M/17

In a closed economy with neither government expenditure nor taxation, the initial income is $2000

A Level ECONOMICS 9708/32/F/M/17

The diagram shows selected US labour statistics from 2001 to 2014.

A Level ECONOMICS 9708/32/F/M/17

Under conditions of full employment, the Quantity Theory of Money suggests that (other things being

A Level ECONOMICS 9708/32/F/M/17

Which combination is usually found in the least developed countries?

A Level ECONOMICS 9708/32/F/M/17

What is the most effective policy a government could introduce to reduce frictional unemployment

A Level ECONOMICS 9708/32/F/M/17

In the UK in 2015 the average wage was £26 500 a year. At the same time, certain footballers were

A Level ECONOMICS 9708/32/F/M/17

What is an advantage of a ‘creation of property rights’ solution to externalities resulting from river pollution?

A Level ECONOMICS 9708/32/F/M/17

What is the main disadvantage of government regulation aimed at restricting the profits earned in a monopolistic

A Level ECONOMICS 9708/32/F/M/17

Extra fishing boats start to operate from a local harbour which depends on fishing for its main income.

A Level ECONOMICS 9708/32/F/M/17

The diagram shows the Gini coefficient for four countries between 1975 and 2010.

A Level ECONOMICS 9708/32/F/M/17

What could prevent a market failure

A Level ECONOMICS 9708/32/F/M/17

A consumer demands two goods, X and Y. The indifference curve diagram shows the effect of a change

A Level ECONOMICS 9708/32/F/M/17

The diagram represents different combinations of good X and good Y.

A Level ECONOMICS 9708/32/F/M/17

What will act as a barrier to collusion between firms?

A Level ECONOMICS 9708/32/F/M/17

A firm successfully engages in a policy of predatory pricing.

A Level ECONOMICS 9708/32/F/M/17

A firm is operating in perfect competition.

A Level ECONOMICS 9708/32/F/M/17

To maximise total revenue, up to which point should a monopolist increase output? A

A Level ECONOMICS 9708/32/F/M/17

Which practices would be classified as price discrimination?

A Level ECONOMICS 9708/32/F/M/17

When a firm doubles its variable inputs, its fixed inputs are unchanged and output less than doubles.

A Level ECONOMICS 9708/32/F/M/17

The diagram shows the position of a profit-maximising firm in a perfectly competitive industry

A Level ECONOMICS 9708/32/F/M/17

Which is an internal economy of scale?

A Level ECONOMICS 9708/32/F/M/17

Which measure is specifically designed to reduce divergences between private and social costs? A

A Level ECONOMICS 9708/32/F/M/17

In 2015, a company electrified the main railway line between two cities in order to decrease the journey

A Level ECONOMICS 9708/32/F/M/17

What might help achieve allocative efficiency

A Level ECONOMICS 9708/32/F/M/17

Compound Z is heated with concentrated acidified potassium manganate(VII). This produces an equimolar mixture of CO2 and CH3COCH2CH2CH(COCH3)CH2CO2H. What could be the structural formula of Z?

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/O/N/15

Which compounds, on heating with excess concentrated sulfuric acid, produce only one product with molecular formula C7H10?

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/O/N/15

X is an organic compound. X gives a precipitate with aqueous silver nitrate. Some or all of this precipitate remains undissolved when excess dilute aqueous ammonia is added. What could be the identity of X?

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/O/N/15

Compound Q is obtained by adding H2O across the double bond in compound P. Which statements about these two compounds are correct?

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/O/N/15

Which descriptions of the ammonium ion are correct?

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/O/N/15

Explain what is used as money in a modern economy. Consider how an increase in the money supply

A Level ECONOMICS 9708/22/F/M/17

Explain the factors that are likely to make the supply of a product relatively price inelastic. [8] (b)

A Level ECONOMICS 9708/22/F/M/17

Concern in Vietnam over trade with China

A Level ECONOMICS 9708/22/F/M/17

Explain the difference between public goods and private goods. Consider why profit can be made

A Level ECONOMICS 9708/22/F/M/17

Which statements about calcium and strontium compounds are correct?

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/O/N/15

Ammonia and chlorine react in the gas phase. 8NH3 + 3Cl 2 → N2 + 6NH4Cl Which statements are correct?

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/O/N/15

Which equations can apply to an ideal gas? [p = pressure, V = volume, M = molar mass, ρ = density, c = concentration, R = gas constant, T = temperature]

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/O/N/15

Which of the following influence the size of the ionisation energy of an atom?

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/O/N/15

The diagram shows four possible aggregate supply curves and an equilibrium point X. A government

A Level ECONOMICS 9708/12/F/M/17

A country has a large current account deficit. Its government decides to devalue its currency. In

A Level ECONOMICS 9708/12/F/M/17

Which statement is not a valid reason why a country may impose protectionist measures? A

A Level ECONOMICS 9708/12/F/M/17

A government wants to operate a tighter monetary policy.

A Level ECONOMICS 9708/12/F/M/17

The US President signed a trade agreement which allowed more duty-free access to the US market

A Level ECONOMICS 9708/12/F/M/17

The table gives the Terms of Trade Index in 2010 and 2013 for Japan and Venezuela.

A Level ECONOMICS 9708/12/F/M/17

At present, one unit of a country’s currency exchanges for US$1.2. The country aims to set its exchange

A Level ECONOMICS 9708/12/F/M/17

A country has a fixed exchange rate.

A Level ECONOMICS 9708/12/F/M/17

The table contains some figures from the 2014 balance of payments account of the United States (US).

A Level ECONOMICS 9708/12/F/M/17

Relative weights are used in calculating the index of retail prices to reflect the different

A Level ECONOMICS 9708/12/F/M/17

The relative molecular mass, Mr, of a particular sample of chlorine is 72.0. Which properties of the atoms in this sample will be the same for all of the atoms?

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/O/N/15

The structure of aspartame, which is used as an artificial sweetener, is shown. If aspartame is warmed in aqueous alkali, which of bonds 1 and 2 will be broken?

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/O/N/15

What is the skeletal formula of 2-methylpentan-1-ol?

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/O/N/15

Menthol and menthone are both found in peppermint oil. Which statement about these compounds is correct?

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/O/N/15

What is the mechanism for the reaction of ethanal, CH3CHO, with hydrogen cyanide, HCN, in the presence of a base?

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/O/N/15

Which circumstance is not likely to represent a strong case for an industry to be nationalised

A Level ECONOMICS 9708/12/F/M/17

How does a rise in the price of factors of production affect the aggregate supply (AS) curve

A Level ECONOMICS 9708/12/F/M/17

In the diagram, D is the demand curve of an agricultural commodity and S is the initial supply curve

A Level ECONOMICS 9708/12/F/M/17

in the diagram, AD1 is an economy’s initial aggregate demand curve.

A Level ECONOMICS 9708/12/F/M/17

What is the most likely purpose of a government making transfer payments, such as social security

A Level ECONOMICS 9708/12/F/M/17

The initial market for a product is represented by the demand and supply curves D1 and S1 respectively

A Level ECONOMICS 9708/12/F/M/17

In 2014 some supermarkets reduced the price they were willing to pay farmers for milk to below what

A Level ECONOMICS 9708/12/F/M/17

A well-known clothes retailer decides to have a summer sale in its shops. As a result the number of people

A Level ECONOMICS 9708/12/F/M/17

For price to act as a rationing mechanism for a final product, the effect of a rising price must be to A attract

A Level ECONOMICS 9708/12/F/M/17

Jam and honey are substitutes. Honey and beeswax are in joint supply

A Level ECONOMICS 9708/12/F/M/17

The compounds below are all produced by plants. Each compound is warmed with acidified potassium dichromate(VI). Which compound will give a different observation to the other three?

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/O/N/15

Compound X has been investigated for use as an artificial sweetener. The two C–Cl bonds can be hydrolysed by hot NaOH(aq). The C-O-C bonds cannot be hydrolysed by hot NaOH(aq). What are the numbers of specified types of –OH groups before and after hydr

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/O/N/15

The depletion of the ozone layer in the upper atmosphere reduces the Earth’s natural protection from harmful ultraviolet radiation. Which compound would cause the most depletion of the ozone layer?

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/O/N/15

Compound Q can be made from propanone. Which types of reaction will Q undergo?

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/O/N/15

The diagram shows the market for coffee. The initial equilibrium position is X. The price of tea, a substitute

A Level ECONOMICS 9708/12/F/M/17

The diagram shows the market for new houses. O

A Level ECONOMICS 9708/12/F/M/17

Which change will lower the price elasticity of supply of a product

A Level ECONOMICS 9708/12/F/M/17

The price elasticity of demand for a firm’s product is equal to one for all price changes. What

A Level ECONOMICS 9708/12/F/M/17

In 2014, in an attempt to find new uses for seven sites previously used to bury rubbish, the Hon

A Level ECONOMICS 9708/12/F/M/17

On a demand and supply diagram, other things remaining the same, a fall in the price of a commodity

A Level ECONOMICS 9708/12/F/M/17

Despite much opposition, the local government in a popular tourist resort built a leisure centre and

A Level ECONOMICS 9708/12/F/M/17

The diagram shows a production possibility curve for an economy that is producing at point P.

A Level ECONOMICS 9708/12/F/M/17

What is most important for the effective operation of the division of labour in a modern economy? A

A Level ECONOMICS 9708/12/F/M/17

The diagram is from a chapter on ‘The Economic Problem’ in an Economics textbook. It should contain

A Level ECONOMICS 9708/12/F/M/17

Methanoic acid, HCO2H, has acidic properties similar to those of other carboxylic acids. In addition it can be oxidised by the same oxidising agents that are capable of oxidising aldehydes. Which pair consists of two compounds that will give the same o

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/O/N/15

Which compound shows optical isomerism?

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/O/N/15

Which ester is formed when the alcohol CH3CH2OH is reacted with CH3CH2CH2CO2H?

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/O/N/15

Use of the Data Booklet is relevant to this question. 4.70 g of an ammonium salt is heated with excess aqueous sodium hydroxide. The volume of ammonia gas given off, measured at room temperature and pressure, is 1.41 dm3. Which ammonium salt was

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/O/N/15

A white powder is a mixture of sodium chloride and sodium iodide. It is dissolved in water in a test-tube. Excess aqueous silver nitrate is added to the test-tube. A precipitate, X, is observed. Excess concentrated ammonia is then added to the test-tub

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/O/N/15

A student observed the reactions when sodium chloride and sodium iodide were each reacted separately with concentrated sulfuric acid and with concentrated phosphoric acid. Some observations are recorded in the table. Which deduction can be made from thes

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/O/N/15

Use of the Data Booklet is relevant to this question. Brine is concentrated aqueous sodium chloride. In the commercial electrolysis of brine, the products are chlorine, hydrogen and sodium hydroxide. What is the maximum yield of each of these pro

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/O/N/15

Use of the Data Booklet is relevant to this question. Which row correctly compares the electrical conductivity and first ionisation energy of magnesium and aluminium?

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/O/N/15

Which chloride of a Period 3 element dissolves in water to form a solution with a pH of 7?

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/O/N/15

Use of the Data Booklet is relevant to this question. The reaction between aluminium powder and anhydrous barium nitrate is used as the propellant in some fireworks. The metal oxides and nitrogen are the only products. Which volume of nitrogen, meas

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/O/N/15

Which property decreases on descending Group II?

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/O/N/15

Which row correctly describes what happens when the temperature of a chemical reaction is decreased?

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/O/N/15

The decomposition reaction SF6(g) → SF4(g) + F2(g) can be described by the reaction pathway diagram shown. What are the values of ΔH o and Ea for this reaction?

A Level CHEMISTRY 9701/12/O/N/15